ills

Pictures and Illustrations.

Map Showing the Indian Tribes in Illinois in 1684.

Map Showing the Indian Tribes in Illinois in 1765.

Map Showing the Indian Tribes in Illinois in 1812.

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Preface.

In presenting this work to the Public, and especially to the people of Illinois, we are prompted by two motives, one to aid the student of to-day in fixing the most notable events in the history and development of the State clearly in the mind, and the other, still more important, to preserve in condensed form for the future what is known to-day of its history. The researches of Mr. Blanchard, partly given in his "History of the Northwest," and his "Historical Map of the United States," led to this more detailed work on the State of Illinois, as the most permanent and desirable form of presenting the valuable data on the history of the State which has been gathered by him through years of labor.

A trite saying, "stick a pin there," as alluding to the establishment of a fact and its proper location, has been kept in mind in this work, and Mr. Blanchard has stuck pins and labeled them all over the State, simplifying and localizing its history, so plainly that "he who runs may read."

THE PUBLISHERS.

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Introduction.

Two large valleys extend into the innermost centre of a continent, and a broad plateau of fertile soil intervenes between them. This is Illinois — a connecting link and portage ground from one of them to the other. Had it been an arid waste or an impregnable mountain uplift, it would have been a barrier — a separatrix between them; but, in the economy of Nature, the national interests of Illinois are inseparably connected with those of both.

From its first discovery, the physical geography of this country attracted the attention of the French, and their early occupation of it shows the importance they attached to it. Three nations have contended for possession of it — Spain, France and England, but a new nation possesses it by right of "manifest destiny."

To leave her history out of American records would leave an unbridged chasm — it would be like cutting off the tap root of a tree and leaving its trunk without support.

When the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies were contending with a stubborn soil, their ambitions limited to their daily wants, France was laying the dimension stone in the Illinois country for the central base of her American empire, and to this end she built Ft. Chartres here, the most impregnable fortress then known in the Western World. These high hopes

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that she then cherished have been realized — not by her, but by a new nation, and it is not too much to say that the history of Illinois records a past and presages a future that finds a parallel only in the history of the United States, of which it forms so important a part, and anything that affects her affects the whole. If the centre is jarred, the circumference is shaken.

Youth of Illinois: You who are to inherit such responsibilities may laudably feel a State pride which will heighten your ambition to do honor to her name.

THE AUTHOR

WHEATON, JUNE, 1883.

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Authorities Consulted.

State papers and public documents, the current historic literature of the Northwest, and many rare works now out of print have been at my command in the preparation of this work.

But besides all these, I owe lasting obligations to Mr. J. G. Shea, of New York, whose contribution cites authorities not to be questioned regarding the settlement of Kaskaskia. This will confer a favor on many writers who have heretofore been in doubt, both as to the date and circumstances attending this early settlement and mission; to Mr. H. W. Beckwith, of Danville, Ill., whose chapter on the Indian tribes of Illinois, with maps accompanying, is compiled from researches of many years in this department of the history of our State; to Mr. E. M. Haines, of Waukegan, Ill., whose chapter on the Indian names of Illinois will be gratefully received by all who wish to retain these examples of the beauty and euphony of the Algonquin language; to Mr. Joseph Gillespie, of Edwardsville, Ill., whose contribution on early settlements is made largely from his personal knowledge, he having come to the State in 1819; to Mr. Aaron W. Kellogg, of Springfield, for his article on the powers and responsibilities of the State offices, and the duties of each department in the present government of the state; to Mr. Milo Erwin, of Marion, for information regarding the route of General George Rogers Clarke to Kaskaskia

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and Vincennes; and, finally, to the many early settlers throughout the State whom I have had the pleasure to meet and consult, and whose valued aid has enabled me to date and locate many events that enhance the value of the work, and in some cases establish historical data that might otherwise have been lost.

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Chapter I — Discovery.

The student of history delights in a good foundation on which to start to write history, without which, it is like beginning in the middle of a story.

Jamestown was the starting place for American National History. The men who in 1607 settled there were loyal to English institutions and to everything that was English whether it was law, religion or politics. Some of them were too lazy to work but not too lazy to fight, some of them could do both, all of them were pets of the English Government, and subsequently this colony was the first to repel French aggression when the territorial issue between France and England came up in 1753.

The settlement of 1620 at Plymouth was the next. The men who composed this were essentially different from the Jamestown colonists. The sublime principles of English liberty to them were no empty name. They meant every thing they said, and to them they meant religious as well as civil liberty. That they were pioneers in both, the sequel proved, for though they were at first a sort of elephant on the hands of the crown that it was glad to get rid of, they subsequently led the way to reforms and improvements in State affairs that the parent government was forced by the progress of civilization to adopt. They also laid the foundation of our American institutions as they are to day, and the laws of Illinois as well as those of all other States of the Union are the fruitage of the seed they planted on the coast of Massachusetts, but modified

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to suit the demands of a more practical age, and an age of still broader religious freedom than they ever thought of or would have advocated. The seed they planted grew into a larger tree than the parent plant, and all because the soil of the west was richer and its fields larger. Hence the source of the political, social, religious and educational laws and customs of Illinois, for these grew from the church, the school-house and from fireside attractions that make the young and the old love their homes. The history of all this is made interesting by even the pictures on the walls of these homes. Our poetry, our romance and our drama are based on this history; and even our family pride would lose its point if not associated with its grandeur.

The discovery and exploration of the Illinois Country, as it was called at first, forms a chapter in history full of varied material for the historic pen. Spain took the lead in American discoveries during the reign of Charles V., who was then the most powerful monarch of Europe. The large amounts of gold brought by his fleets from the new world, stimulated the ambition of the French king to participate in western adventures, and to this end an expedition was planned to explore its northern coast sufficiently remote from the Spanish claims of Florida not to come in competition with with them. The command of the expedition was given to Jacques Cartier, it sailed from St. Malo in the spring of 1534, Charles V. protested against its sailing to make discoveries in the new world which he claimed as the heritage of Spain alone, to which Francis the French king replied "I should like to see the clause in Father Adam's will and testament which bequeaths to Spain alone so vast an heritage."

The Gulf of St. Lawrence was entered directly after the arrival of Cartier's fleet and he named it after the Saint whose name it bears. The following spring he returned, pushed his way up the St. Lawrence river and wintered in the vicinity of Quebec among the Indians who entertained their new guests with the best they had. As soon as navigation opened the

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next spring Cartier returned to France and reported what he had seen.

The great highway to the interior had been opened to view, but it appeared like a barren discovery for it was not then known what laid beyond the rock-clad headlands of the St. Lawrence, and it was not till 1608 that the French colonized their possessions on its banks. This was done under King Henry IV. by Samuel de Champlain at Quebec. Here began on the waters of the St. Lawrence the work of exploration destined to bring to light the entire Valley of the Mississippi to which it was at that time the only avenue, for the Spanish guarded the Gulf of Mexico with a jealous eye, and to have approached the interior across the country would not have been allowed by the Five Nations or Iroquois, who then held the intervening country between it and the Hudson river as far south as the Allegheny mountains.

Champlain established French authority at Quebec and as soon as the natural obstacles to further explorations would admit of it French missionaries and French fur traders pushed forward into the interior and established forts and mission houses. In 1615 Champlain himself on a tour of exploration discovered Lake Huron and named it after a tribe of Indians on its shores.

In 1641 French missionaries had reached the outlet of Lake Superior, and in 1658 traders had reached its western extremity and made the acquaintance of the Sioux — the same warlike nation whose descendants, under their chief Sitting Bull, overwhelmed the army of General Custer among the Black Hills in 1877, killing all but one of them. From them the first tidings of "the great river that flowed southward to the sea," came to the French. This information stimulated their zeal to explore it. and to this end Father Marquette, a priest, and Joliet, a trader, under patronage of Talon, Intendent of Canada while Frontenac was Governor, started with two canoes and five service men from the mission of St. Ignace, opposite the island of Macinac. Holding their course along the

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northern shore of Lake Michigan, they soon entered the waters of Green Bay, and arriving at its head they rested a short time at the mission of St. Francis Xavier, which had been established four years previously. From this outermost limit of French occupation they took their final departure from the abodes of civilization into the great unknown wilderness before them. By the advice of the Indians they were directed into the path which led to the elbow in the Wisconsin river at the present site of Portage. Here they launched their two bark canoes into the river and continued on their way till its mouth was reached in the rolling surges of the Mississippi, whose turbulent waters contrasted strangely with the Wisconsin, which held its quiet course sometimes under the brow of a precipice and sometimes in a deep channel through prairie sand-bars. Marquette was delighted with the discovery of "the great river," then without a name, and he christened it the Conception River in honor of his patron saint, "the Blessed Virgin." The discovery was made on the 17th of June, 1673. Down its current the travelers passed through the great amplitude of wild nature that spread out in limitless prairies on either side, and on which countless herds of buffalo found pasturage. No signs of human life had yet been seen in the immense country through which they had passed since they left the mission house at Green Bay, but on their arrival at the mouth of the Des Moines river human foot-prints were discovered on its banks.

This excited the explorers, especially Marquette, whose chief object was to bring the light of the gospel to new nations, while that of Joliet was to open a way for French alliances with the inhabitants of the country, with an ultimate view of occupying it jointly with the natives after they had been converted to Christianity under the teaching of the missionaries. The loving relations between the French and the Indians were always consistent with this theory, but fortune in the future had a different fate in store for both. The footprints seen by

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the explorers were followed, and after two leagues three Indian villages were seen on the banks of the Des Moines. They were of the Peoria tribe of the Illinois Indians, and now an interview between the French and these tribes is about to take place. Soon as the approach of the strangers had attracted the attention of the villagers, four chiefs advanced to meet them. "Who are you?" called out Marquette in Algonquin dialect. "We are Illini," replied one of their chiefs. This word in their language meant men, and therefore the word Illini was not intended to be understood in a generic sense by them, but as significant of the humane intentions which they vouchsafed towards their distinguished guests, and which profession they never dishonored in their future intercourse with them. They also intended by this reply to distinguish themselves from the Iroquois, whom they stigmatized as beasts on account of their cruel modes of warfare, the force of which they had felt. A pleasant interview followed, in which the Indians entertained their visitors with the best varieties of food their hands could prepare, among which the "delicious" dog meat was not forgotten. The rest was made up of buffalo meat, fish and hominy.

Marquette never lost an opportunity to advocate Christianity to his savage hearers, and on this occasion told them of the crucifixion of Christ and the plan of salvation, all of which was politely received by his untutored audience, whose desire to cultivate the good will of the French was stimulated by fear of the Iroquois, from whose invasions they looked to them for protection.

With friendship on both sides the explorers took their leave the next morning, which was the 25th of June, and continued their course down the river.

On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio, a roving band of Indians were met. They were armed with guns, probably obtained from the English colonists. A few pleasant courtesies were exchanged with them, and the travelers passed on

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and were soon buried in the gloomy forests of cottonwood that shadow the banks of this river in its immensity below the mouth of the Ohio — majestic in its monotony and grand in its solitude.

Through these silent realms they made their way along with the current to the vicinity of the Arkansas river, where the scene changed. Here was life again, and a different people. The young men assailed them with their war clubs, but happily the old men came to the rescue in time to prevent any damage by ordering a suspension of hostilities. Pending this new danger, Marquette presented the calumet and called upon the Holy Virgin to protect them, and in his devotion gave to her all the glory for their deliverance.

A friendly interview followed, and the explorers were conducted with much ceremony to the houses of the natives and feasted with fish and hominy, the dishes from which they ate being earthenware of native manufacture. The night was spent among them, though not without misgivings as to the abiding character of the hastily improvised friendship which these southern tribes had made up.

The ever-ready gospel was dispensed to them through an interpreter who understood the Illinois tongue in which Marquette addressed his passionless audience, and the next day, which was the 19th of July, the explorers started on their return.

From what they had already seen, they were convinced that the "great river" emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, and to go farther would be exceedingly dangerous, not only from the Indians, but from Spanish explorers who might be encountered on the lower waters of the river.

Constant toiling at the oar in a few weeks brought them to the mouth of the Illinois river, into which they entered and kept up the stream till the village of the Kaskaskias, near the present site of Utica, was reached. Here they were again received with true Illinois friendship of no doubtful character.

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After the inevitable feast of sagamite (hominy), added to which w as the equally inevitable blessing of the pious missionary, the journey was again resumed under an escort of Indian guides who volunteered to accompany the Frenchmen to the Chicagou portage. 'Twas in the month of September when they arrived at the place, then a broad waste of grass and prairie flowers, channeled by two lazy streams that met from opposite directions and, united, flowed, or rather formed a connection, with the lake. This was Chicago as nature made it and as these men, who were unquestionably its first discoverers, saw it. The Indians and the Frenchmen here parted company, the former starting back to their home, and the latter coasting along the west bank of Lake Michigan toward Canada. On arriving at a point opposite the mission of St. Francis Xavier, Marquette, being sadly in need of rest, in consequence of sickness, took refuge at the mission-house, while Joliet continued on his route to Canada to report what the two had discovered to Frontenac, the governor. On the 25th of the following October, Father Marquette was partially recovered from his malady, and set out on a return trip to visit the Kaskaskia village on the Illinois river. Two young Frenchmen, Pierre and Jacques, and a delegation of Indians sufficiently numerous to fill ten canoes, accompanied him. Their route was across a narrow neck of land intervening between the head of Green Bay and Lake Michigan by a portage, thence along the shore of the lake to the Chicago river.

'Twas the 4th of December when he arrived at this then desolate portage. The river was sheeted over with ice, which suspended canoe navigation, but what was far more unfortunate, the Father was again prostrated by a return of his malady. To proceed was impossible, and to remain at the comfortless place was a grievous, but the only alternative.

A cabin was built, probably on the south ranch of the Chicago river towards its source, which at that time was what has since been called Mud Lake. This lake was a succession

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of sloughs connecting with the Desplaines river, and forming good canoe navigation all the way in high water, but during the summer months was drained of its surplus waters and left a stagnant pool. The two faithful companions of the invalid did their best to keep him comfortable as far as the hasty cabin which they made for him could do it. The Father kept a journal, and from it we learn that roving bands of Indians sometimes visited him and brought game, and that not far distant a trader had recently established a post, and lie sometimes brought such succor to the missionary as the wilderness afforded.

Winter did not break till late in March, on the 30th of which month, says the journal, the ground on which the cabin stood was overflowed by an excessive rain, and they were forced to leave the spot for a more elevated one. The last item on his journal bears date of April 6th, and two days later he was at the Kaskaskia village, near where Utica now stands, from which it would appear that the freshet had carried the canoe in which they traveled rapidly to the place.

Here the devout missionary exerted himself to his utmost limit to establish a mission among the Illinois tribes, who appear to have won his solicitude from the firSt. He named the mission The Immaculate Conception, and spent his last vital energies in it to bring to the understanding of his willing but unteachable hearers the Christian plan of salvation.

After remaining a few days with his savage flock, he felt that he could barely survive long enough to reach Canada, and he with his companions started on their return. They chose their route along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. On arriving at the place now known as Sleeping Bear Point, he died at their place of encampment on the shore, and was buried by his attendants. The next year his remains were disinterred by a band of Indians, carried to the Mission of Saint Ignace, just opposite Mackinaw, and buried beneath the chapel with impressive ceremony. In 1877 an attempt was made to

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discover his bones, which resulted in finding two of them only.The record of his discovery of the Mississippi will be as enduring as our literature. It forms the opening chapter of our State history, and cannot fade into oblivion as long as our nation lasts.

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Chapter II — The French in Illinois.

When Joliet parted from Marquette at Green Bay, as told in the foregoing chapter, he kept on his route towards Canada, stopping on the way at Fort Frontenac, at the outlet of Lake Ontario. Here he met Robert de La Salle, who held command of the place. Already he had distinguished himself by his discovery of the Ohio river five years previously, and it is hardly to be doubted that the two explorers conferred together as to the geography of the country, and especially as to the new discovery of the Mississippi, of which Joliet had ample notes and maps, just made by himself, while treading the first pathway made by white men through the interior.

After leaving Fort Frontenac, Joliet had the misfortune to lose all the records of his discovery by the upsetting of his canoe in the St. Lawrence river, just above Montreal, and through the delay occasioned by this accident, or some other cause not now known, no official account of his discovery was published till 1681, at which date it appeared on Thevenot's map, issued at Paris, and reproduced by various others since. Marquette drew a map of the "Conception river," together with the outlines of the lakes, which was a marvel of accuracy considering the material he had to work with. It has been republished by Shea, and copied from his reprint by many others. The original is now in St. Mary's College, Montreal.

After the interview between Joliet and La Salle, the latter at once determined to utilize the work so auspiciously begun by extending the exploration of the Mississippi to its mouth,

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and ultimately establishing a colony there. The St. Lawrence valley the lake country, and the entire valley of the Mississippi were but the limits of his ambition. On these France to be reproduced in the New World, and the Illinois country was to be the central base of operations wherewith to accomplish these designs. The first step to be taken in this direction was to secure a foothold at the eastern extremity of Lake Erie by building a fort at the place.

The Senecas, an Iroquois tribe, held this country at the time and it required no small amount of persuasion, accompanied with several "fathoms of tobacco" and other presents, to overcome the misgivings of these Indians as to the policy of allowing the fort to be built, but La Salle was equal to the emergency, obtained their consent, and built the fort in 1678, at the mouth of the Niagara river.

The next year he built a vessel above the falls and named it The Griffin. She was launched early in the spring, and in the following summer was loaded with her cargo, which consisted of a forge, ship carpenter's tools, and the iron work for a vessel to be built on the banks of the Illinois river. With this vessel La Salle intended to go down the Mississippi river to its mouth, and there establish a colony with which to hold the whole country drained by its waters.

With this design he set sail in the Griffin on the 7th of August, 1679. Thirty-four men joined him, most of whom were those enlisted in his service. Tonty, his faithful lieutenant, and four priests, prominent among whom was Hennepin, were included in the number. The vessel safely arrived at Green Bay, where her cargo was unloaded and transferred to small boats, thence to be transported to the Illinois river with the men, while the Griffin was loaded with a cargo of furs and sent back to the place from whence she came.

At that time there were two traveled routes from the Illinois river country to Lake Michigan, both of which were older history. One was by the way of the Desplaines and

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Chicago rivers, between which was a portage of about nine miles, except in very high water, at which time Mud Lake connected the two. The other was by the way of the St. Joseph river to the elbow where South Bend, Indiana, now is, thence by a portage to the source of the Kankakee river, and down it to the Illinois. La Salle chose the latter, and, after much detention by storm, he with his whole force arrived at the broadening of the Illinois river, where Peoria now is, about the first of January, 1680. Time was precious with him, and it was important that he should set about his work immediately. But before it could be begun, consent from the Indians to build a fort must be obtained, and consent to build a vessel was equally necessary before the work could safely be attempted. This was readily obtained from the pliant Illinois, and the work was begun. The fort, which was only a stockade of logs, was soon finished, and this was the first thing done on the soil of Illinois with a view to permanent occupation. It was situated on the eastern bank of the river, at the southern extremity of Peoria Lake, and named Fort Creve Coeur — Broken Heart. It was probably so named to memorize the hardships that had crossed the path of La Salle while concentrating his force and materials at this spot in the depths of a continent.

The keel was laid for the intended vessel near by the fort, but before work on it had advanced far, some of his men deserted, partly for want of pay, and, perhaps, partly through a disposition to cut loose from restraint in the broad creation of savage freedom then omnipresent in the Illinois country. This unlocked for hindrance made it necessary to suspend work on the vessel, but the end in view was not lost sight of, and La Salle determined to return to Canada to enlist a fresh force of men.

On the first of March he started with five companions, one of whom was an Indian. Winter still hung over the country, and the small streams were not yet released from its icy grasp,

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and when the travelers had reached the upper tributaries of the Illinois river the canoes by which they came had to be abandoned, and all their supplies, including camp outfits, packed on their shoulders. When the western extremity of Lake Erie was reached, a canoe was made with which to perform the rest of their journey by water, and in it La Salle and one of the men embarked, after sending the other four up the Detroit to Michilimacinac to rest, for they were spent with fatigue and sickness. La Salle arrived at Fort Frontenac on the 6th of May. While he had been painfully toiling on foot through the oozy savannas of the forest to reach Canada for new recruits of men, disasters had been accumulating at the base of his operations in the front. Soon after his departure nearly the whole remaining force not only deserted but dismantled the fort and threw its contents into the river. This was done during the temporary absence of Tonty, whom he had left in command. Only six of the entire force had remained faithful, two of whom were priests. With these the heroic Tonty put forth his best efforts to inspire the respect of his savage companions till the return of La Salle to carry out his projects, for it was essential to his success to retain a foothold here. The deserters had done their worst, and the summer passed in the listless inaction of Indian communities when there is nothing to do but to cultivate a patch of corn, but on the 10th of September, sudden as a clap of thunder in a clear sky, came an Iroquois invasion. By a happy chance this advancing army had been espied in the distance at least a day's march away, and the news was carried in hot haste by fleet-footed runners to the Illinois village.

They were in no condition to defend themselves, but Tonty, who was their friend, just before the battle took it upon himself to act the part of a mediator, and even after the skirmishing had begun, interposed between the two armies and advanced into the Iroquois camp.

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The battle was suspended by this daring act, and the furious warriors gathered around him, some bent on killing him, while others, more considerate, lent an ear to his proposals. In vain he put forth his efforts to intimidate the haughty warriors by exaggerating the force of his allies, they were not to be balked of their prey, and Tonty was allowed to retire, but bleeding with a wound which a faithless warrior had given him in a fit of rage at his effrontery.

It was evident to Tonty that the Illinois would be worsted in the encounter, and inasmuch as his presence would not save them, he with his five companions started for the mission house at Green Bay. The Illinois fled down the river before their foes, leaving everything they possessed behind, the most valuable part of which was their corn. This was destroyed by the ruthless invaders, who then returned to their hunting grounds — the present State of New York — taking with them a large number of female prisoners who fell into their hands as the spoils of war. These were promptly adopted into their tribe as supernumerary wives for the warriors of the expedition.

At the first night's encampment of Tonty's party, Father Ribourde strolled away a short distance for prayer and meditation, when a renegade band of Kickapoos killed him, perhaps to win his scalp to dangle from one of their belts as an ornament, added to which might be the sacred cross of the Father desecrated into an Indian trinket.

Tonty's party reached their destination after the loss of Ribourde, but not without hardships and starvation, that taxed their endurance to its utmost limit, and here the discomfited fugitives rested for the winter.

La Salle had been successful in raising new recruits for his enterprise, and in his haste to reach the Illinois country had, with seven companions, pushed forward in advance, while the heavy material was being, transported by the main body.

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On arriving at the Illinois village, instead of an expected greeting from friends, the scene of the late destruction that had again thwarted his plans opened before him in dumb silence.

There were no signs of human life there, but when night came the yelps of wolves quarreling over the spoils of the battle field broke harshly upon its silence. Meantime the fate of Tonty hung in painful suspense, but as no trace of his body could be found among the ruins, hope partially relieved fear that he was among the slain.

La Salle with his party now retraced their steps to Fort Miamis, at the mouth of the St. Joseph river, where he met his advancing men, and here they all spent the winter.

The next spring La Salle set about the accomplishment of his plans. Instead of a vessel, canoes were to be used, maimed with Frenchmen and Indian allies. The preparations for even this simple mode of transportation required the whole summer and the following autumn.

The Indian tribes had to be conciliated, and an alliance formed between the Miamias and the Illinois for mutual protection against the Iroquois, which, strengthened by French alliance, satisfied the Western tribes, and they all acquiesced in La Salle's plans.

The mouth of the St. Joseph river was the place of rendezvous, and late in December had gathered there a convention of Indians, from whom La Salle selected 18, who, added to his 23 Frenchmen, made a force of 41 men; but among the Indians were 10 of their wives and three children, a requisition on the part of the red volunteers that La Salle did not see fit to disallow, though such an incumbrance must have been distasteful to him.

Tonty, who had been heard from and summoned to the spot, led the advance, starting on the 21st of December along the southern shore of lake Michigan. The "Chicagou" route had been determined on as the most direct, on arriving at which place the river was found to be frozen over. But little

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detention was caused by this, for Tonty set his men at work making sledges for transportation; and canoes, baggage, pappooses and camp equipage were loaded on them and hauled by the men rapidly over river and portage, till open water was reached on the Illinois. Here the sledges were abandoned and the canoe flotilla launched, which was to bear its diversified crew to distant and unknown lands, there to take possession of a destined French empire.

It arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi April 6, 1682 and here a large cross was erected and a plate of lead buried beside it, as monuments of French possession of the Mississippi valley. Prayers, chants and shouts followed, in which latter the guttural jargon of the Indians was mingled, probably with as little sense of the situation as the roaring of the sea that rolled its surges against this lonesome solitude. The country was named Louisiana, in honor of Louis XVI., and the explorers left the historic spot to tug their way up the current of the Mississippi.

On their arrival at the Illinois country, Tonty was constituted governor of it by La Salle, and now began the official line of organized government here, though there was nothing to govern at the time except a few zealous priests, who needed no restraint, and a large number of Indians whom no legal forms could restrain, added to whom were a score of fur-traders, untractable and lawless as birds of passage, and almost as transient in their erratic wanderings.

The first thing to do was to build a fort, without which no authority could exist even in form. The site for this was chosen on what is now the summit of Starved Rock, near Utica, on the Illinois river. This was done in December, 1682, and christened Fort St. Louis. It proved a refuge of safety, around which the Illinois tribes gathered with confidence, and again the rich valleys which its heights overlook swarmed with Indian life, bidding defiance to Iroquois invasion from under the guns of French allies.

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The cause of these invasions grew out of English rivalry in fur trade. Dongan, the colonial governor of New York, furnished the Iroquois with the material wherewith to make and these defiant warriors were ever ready to do his bidding, for they were dependent on the English for guns and ammunition as well as many rude implements of civilization, of which they had been taught the use.In like manner such Indians as were in alliance with the French espoused their cause against the English, and often made hostile incursions from Canada into the frontier English settlements adjacent. Governor Dongan's headquarters were at Albany, and from here he sent out men to intercept the trade of the French along the lakes, for even in this early day the Western trade was a coveted prize between the French of the St. Lawrence and the English of the Hudson river. This trade has now multiplied a thousand fold in value, and is chiefly secured to the Americans by the Erie canal and the various railroads that connect Illinois with the Atlantic seaboard.

On the return of La Salle to the Illinois country after his exploration of the Mississippi, he learned with painful regrets that Frontenac had been recalled from the governorship of Canada, and La Barre put in his place. He was no friend to La Salle, but, on the contrary, an enemy. He used his official authority against him by stopping all supplies from Canada intended for the Illinois country, which had now become the base of operations of the French in the interior, from which advances could be made to carry out any designs of French aggrandizement in the valley of the Mississippi, and if only a moderate effort could be made to keep a few men there supplied with ammunition, the trading interests would take care themselves and bring a revenue to the French crown.

In vain La Salle besought the new Governor to sustain him in carrymg out this policy. He was impervious to his entreaties sneered at his labors and his plans as worse than useless.

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La Salle now determined to go to France and make an appeal to the king, and with this resolution left the Illinois, country late in the autumn of 1683 for Canada. On his way he met a delegation from La Barre, under command of De Baugis, armed with authority to assume command of Fort St. Louis, and act as governor of the country. Tonty submitted to his authority, and there appears to have been a good understanding between him and the new governor. Tonty, with his characteristic force and courage, repelled an Iroquois invasion which soon followed although he was without official authority.

La Salle sailed for France, reached the ear of the king, and through the influence of his friends, together with his own force of purpose, secured the royal favor.

Now the tables were turned. Tonty was restored to the governorship of the Illinois country, and La Salle himself was put in command of a fleet to sail for the mouth of the Mississippi and establish a French colony at the place. By mistake the fleet landed at Metagorda Bay, on the coast of Texas. Here the ill-fated colony languished for two years, at which time they were almost exhausted by disease and death, and La Salle formed the resolution of going back to the Illinois country to obtain succor. Selecting a few hardy companions he started, but was assassinated by one of his own men on the banks of the Trinity river. Seven of his party reached the Illinois in safety, but the hapless colony all perished in their forlorn hermitage. Tonty meantime held command at his post, protecting French interests there and establishing an authority which, but for the fortunes of the French and Indian war of the next century, would have made Illinois a French State, subject to a French king. The French settlements of Southern Illinois were permanent, and were the first substantial results of the foregoing discoveries and explorations. Much uncertainty has hitherto existed as to the date of the commencement of these settlements, but the following paragraph

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which Mr. J. G. Shea has given to the writer will settle the question:

"THE MISSION OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION AMONG THE KASKASKIAS."

"This mission dates from September, 1673, when Father Marquette visited the Kaskaskias at their town on the upper Illinois river. It bore the name Kaskaskia, and consisted of sixty-nine cabins.

"It was on the Illinois river, about six miles below the mouth of the Fox river.Having promised to return and establish a mission among them, he set out in November, 1674, wintered at Chicago, and on Easter, 1675, reached Kaskaskia, beginning the mission under the name of the Immaculate Conception.Finding his malady increasing, he endeavored to reach Macinac, but died on the way. Father Claude Allouez renewed the mission April 27th, 1677, and continued it till La Salle's expedition reached Illinois. The Recollects began a mission at Fort Creve Coeur, but none at Kaskaskia, and the mission there soon closed. Allouez subsequently returned, and was succeeded in 1690 by Father James Gravier, who established the mission on a firm basis about 1693.

"When the French began a settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi in 1699, several northern tribes prepared to go down and settle there. The Kaskaskias went to the Mississippi in 1700, but were induced to wait and settle at the present Kaskaskia. The mission and town retained the old name.

"THE MISSION AT CAHOKIA AND TAMAROA."

"This mission was founded about 1700 by Father Francis Pinet, but the next year the mission was transferred from the

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Jesuits to priests sent from the seminary of Quebec. Rev. Mr. Burgur was the firSt. After a time they confined themselves to the care of the French settlers and left the Indians to the Jesuits.The Quebec priests remained at Tamaroa till the fall of French power."

Not long after the settlements of Kaskaskia and Cahokia, the circumstances of which have just been told by Mr. Shea, other French towns were established near by them, altogether constituting a thriving settlement midway between Canada and the settlements at the mouth of the Mississippi river. To protect them Fort Chartres was built, being finished in 1720. It was at that time the strongest fort in North America. Some relics of it still remain as a monument of French power in Illinois, but part of it has been undermined by the wearing away of the river bank, while much of the stone of which it was originally built has been appropriated for private use. No hostile shot was ever fired against its walls, and if French power had been as invulnerable against attack at her outermost limits as at this place, she would have remained the great power in America till political revolution had wrought what foreign foes were unable to do.

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Chapter III — Illinois Under English Rule.

From the previous chapter it is seen that French possessions in America extended from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, including in its still but partially explored territory the whole country drained by the St. Lawrence and Mississippi rivers.

The English colonies were then confined to a narrow belt of land along the Atlantic coast, insignificant in size compared to the French possessions.

As each of these nationalities increased in numbers and extended their settlements, the boundary question between them came up, and increased in importance till the frontier occupation of the questionable territory by the two rival nations brought their interests in collision with each other.

This rivalry took place on the headwaters of the Ohio river, the first exciting cause of which was the formation of the Ohio Company, under a grant from the English crown. This grant was obtained by Mr. Hanbury, of London, for a tract of country within the present limits of the State of Ohio. The company was composed of eight associates, of whom Lawrence, Augustine and George Washington were three. Measures were taken by the Ohio Company to occupy these lands by commencing to build a fort where Pittsburg now stands, but the men thus employed were driven away by a large force of French and Indians, and this was the beginning of the French and Indian war.

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The contest lasted from 1754 to 1759. It involved nearly the whole of Europe in its straggle, for its issue was entangled with the old question as to the balance of power on the continent. The Indian tribes of Canada, and those along the lakes and the Ohio river, as well as the Iroquois of the New York colony and the Delawares of the Susquehanna, were all on the war-path to help settle this question, which was the most momentous one the world had yet seen, as the result has shown.

Wolfe's victory on the heights of Abraham, Sept. 13th, 1759, was the last and the decisive battle which settled it. By the fiat of war the boundary line between the French and English possessions in America was established on the Mississippi instead of the Ohio river, and all the territory east of this boundary, as far south as the Spanish possessions of Florida, and the French settlements on the east bank of the Mississippi south of the thirty-first parallel, fell into English hands, according to the definitive treaty of peace which terminated the war. The preliminary treaty, of which the definitive one was the substance, was executed between General Amherst, commander of the English forces, and M. de Vandreuil, French Governor of Canada, bearing date at Montreal, September 8th, 1760. As soon as it was signed the English proceeded to take possession of the immense country acquired by it as fast as it could be done. To do this was a work of no small magnitude, as the sequel proved.

The entire native population of the country had learned to love the French during generations of harmonious relations with them, and they had fought on their side during the late war. Not an Englishman had then settled northwest of the Ohio river; the Indians held the whole country with a tenacious grip, and had no, even distant fear, that the English would ever be able to dispossess them of it. They were willing to harbor them as traders, but that was all.

On the 29th of November, 1760, Detroit was taken possession of by the English under Major Robert Rogers. The next

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summer Michilimacinac, Ste. Maria, at the outlet of Lake Superior, Green Bay, St. Joseph and Sandusky, were also taken possession of by the English. These were all the places where the French held posts in the conquered country which had not fallen into the hands of the English during the war, except Vincennes and Fort Ouatanon, on the Wabash, and the cluster of French towns in Southern Illinois. Neither of these two latter places, in their distant remoteness from the scenes of the late war, had been even threatened with invasion. But before any steps had been taken to establish English rule over them, the western tribes, under Pontiac, determined to drive the English from the new posts they had already occupied. With this end in view a secret conspiracy was planned by Pontiac and a simultaneous attack made upon each, resulting in the capture of all of them except Detroit and Fort Pitt (Pittsburg). The Indians now reigned triumphant through out the entire northwest, and kept up the siege of Detroit under Pontiac, their great leader, till August 26th, 1763, when the arrival of General Bradstreet with a large force relieved the place and dispersed the red assailants who had closely pressed the garrison for over a year, and reduced them to the verge of starvation.

Fort Pitt was also besieged, but not so closely, till General Bouquet relieved the place during the same month. It now only remained to take possession of the French settlements of the Illinois country, and Vincennes on the Wabash, to fulfill the provisions of the treaty at the termination of the French and Indian war.

Four years had elapsed since the date of this preliminary treaty, and the time seemed as distant as ever when the English could venture into the country with safety, especially as an immense domain of forest intervened between it and their settlements along the Atlantic coaSt. The first attempt to do this was to send a force up the Mississippi river, for the lesson taught by the bloody experience of the late war with

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Pontiac had taught General Gage, the British officer now in command of America, a due degree of caution, and he did not deem it practicable to send a force so far into wilds filled with Indians of still doubtful friendship. Accordingly a force of 300 men under Major Loftus was dispatched from Bayou Manchae, an English post on the Gulf of Mexico, to ascend the Mississippi in barges to the French settlements in the Illinois country. "While laboring against the current on his way, he was suddenly attacked by the Tonica Indians, who poured a volley of shot among his men first from one side of the river and then from the other, and he beat a retreat down stream, abandoning farther attempts to reach the place in question.

The situation was now complicated in the extreme. Pontiac, though driven from the field, was still a power among the Indian tribes of the interior, with whom the French of Southern Illinois were on the best of terms, through motives of both policy and friendship.

After being driven from Detroit, Pontiac had taken refuge at the French villages of the Illinois, over whom the discreet and benevolent St. Ange still exercised an authority both official and paternal. To him Pontiac applied for succor to prolong the fight. It would not do to offend the fallen chieftain, nor would it do to grant his request, and the governor was at his wit's end for a ruse to get out of the dilemma; still he managed, by dint of much circumspection, to preserve the friendship of the importunate representative of Indian interests without allying the French to his hopeless cause.

Pending these years of suspense French traders were driving a profitable business in buffalo hides and peltries, for which merchandise they found a ready market at St. Louis and New Orleans. This increased the difficulties of carrying out the provisions of the treaty, for when the English flag should float over the ramparts of Fort Chartres, English merchants would succeed French, and trade would seek an outlet by the way of the lakes instead of down the river. Of so

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much importance was the question of commercial rivalry between the French of New Orleans and the English of Detroit, that Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, was instructed by the London Board of Trade to take early and effectual measures to secure the trade of the Illinois. He had in his employ at this time an able officer named George Crogan, whose mission had been to act as his deputy at distant points in the wilderness, and to him Sir William assigned the task of going to the place in question to reconcile the inhabitants, both Indian and French, to the English, as a preparatory step towards official occupation. Fort Pitt was the place from which he was to embark on the important but dangerous mission. Here he was detained a month to receive the last installment of captives from the Shawanese, which they had the year before stipulated by treaty to give up, and under an impression that no time should be lost in sending an English deputy to the Illinois, he dispatched an intrepid scout named Frazier, with a few attendants, down the Ohio river, with instructions to proceed immediately to Kaskaskia and inform the authorities there that the agent of Sir William Johnson would soon follow, with power to act for him. Frazier reached the place in due season, and was well received by the inhabitants, but the traders soon got up a conspiracy to kill him, for they well knew that his mission was unfavorable to their interests. To save himself from their murderous hands he sought the protection of Pontiac, and although this chief hated the English with double intensity, nevertheless he was a tenacious stickler for conventional formalities, and would allow no violence done to the Englishman, whom he regarded in the light of an ambassador.

It was early in May, 1765, that Crogan started down the Ohio river from Fort Pitt. At various places on the way he was detained to execute official business with Indian tribes, and it was the 6th of June when he arrived at the mouth of

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the Wabash. No English delegation had ever before penetrated so far into the wilds except Frazier's party, and here he encamped to take time to consider the situation. On the 8th he was attacked by 80 Kickapoo warriors; five of his men were killed and he himself slightly wounded, when he gave up his command as prisoners. This skirmish took place on the soil of Illinois, just below the mouth of the Wabash. Crogan and his band were taken up the Wabash to Vincennes, which was then a French village of eighty houses, near which was a large Piankesha village.By this time the Kickapoos had discovered that their captive was a man not to be trifled with, and they regarded him more in the light of a superior than a prisoner.

Having been unable to reach his destination, he wished to send a letter to St. Ange, the lawgiver and priest of the Illinois country, and a messenger was promptly at his bidding to carry it. The French furnished him the paper on which to write it, but not till the Indians had given their consent. This done, he was conducted up the river to Ouatanon, at which place he arrived the 23d. Here he was set at liberty, and after holding councils with various tribes of the country, he started on the 18lh of July for the Illinois villages. On the way he met Pontiac at the head of a delegation of Indians. Hitherto this unrelenting warrior had refused all conciliatory meetings with the English, but now for the first time his stubborn resolution gave way, and he consented to confer with Crogan as to peaceful relations, and the whole party returned to Ouatanon for that purpose. After their arrival at the place Pontiac renounced his hostile policy, and promised to use his influence in favor of peace. This, together with the general acquiesence in the English occupation of the country already obtained, was all Crogan could ask, and made it unnecessary for him to visit the Illinois country according to his first intention.

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He now started for Detroit, where be again counseled with the Indians, and from thence started for the headquarters of Sir William Johnson on the Mohawk river, to whom he made his report.

In accordance with the original plan, the military commission which was to follow Crogan embarked from Fort Pitt in the autumn of the same year — 1765. It consisted of about 120 men from the 42d regiment of Highlanders, under Captain Sterling. They arrived at Fort Chartres by way of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers on the 10th of October, and for the first time within the limits of the present State of Illinois the Lilies of France fell from the flagstaff, and the Cross of St. George rose in its place.

This was the last official act that had despoiled France of her transcendent possessions on the American continent, for already she had, in 1762, ceded New Orleans and her territory west of the Mississippi to Spain.

The French population of the Illinois villages at this time, together with St. Louis, was about 2,000, added to whom were about 500 slaves.

The first thing to be done after possession had been taken was to issue the proclamation which General Gage had prepared for the occasion. It guaranteed freedom to the inhabitants in religious matters as well as in their civil rights. But the former was all the Frenchman of that day cared for. He had no ambition to take a hand in the mysteries of government or to make any nice distinction as to any other rights except the right to obey his priest and his magistrate. Such was the early Frenchman of Illinois — law-abiding, simple and happy.

Three months after his arrival Captain Sterling died, and Major Frazier succeeded him as governor. Early in the spring the English troops left the country by the way of the Mississippi river for Pensacola, from whence they sailed for Philadelphia, arriving there the 15th of June.

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Colonel Reed succeeded Frazier as governor, but made himself odious to the inhabitants by an oppressive system of military ruling ill suited to the former subjects of the benevolent St. Ange.

The next in command was Colonel Wilkins, who arrived in Kaskaskia Sept. 5th, 1768. On the 21st of September following he received orders from General Cage to establish a court of justice. Seven judges were appointed, and the first English court ever convened in Illinois held its sessions at Fort Chartres Dec. 9th, 1768. It is not known how long Colonel Wilkins remained in office, or what English governor succeeded him, but it is known that St. Ange again returned to his loving charge, after having been ruler over St. Louis, which had become a Spanish town in 1762, as already stated.

The groundwork of the English policy on taking possession of the country was foreshadowed by a proclamation issued by George III., Oct. 24th, 1765, and again by a proclamation in 1772.These proclamations forbade private ownership to the soil, and the inference is plain that he intended to divide the whole country up into baronial estates. Had it been settled by Canadian Frenchmen, such an attempt might have been successful, but the growth of the country stimulated the ambition of its inhabitants into higher and broader channels, and a more general dispensation of nature's gifts in this wealth-producing country than a baronial policy would admit of.

On the 2d of June, 1774, the British Parliament passed an act entitled "The Quebec BIll." This act extended the limits of Canada so as to include all the territory north of the Ohio river. This was the first official act of Parliament that gave offense to the colonists. It abridged the limits of the Virginia colony, which claimed the territory across the Ohio by virtue of her original charter, and besides this, it disappointed the ambitions of private companies who were at that time contemplating emigration to the valley of the Ohio. Certain acts of

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Lord Dunmore, the last colonial governor of Virginia, gave offense to the border men, who in turn avowed their principles and purposes in ominous language,which clearly foretold the Revolution, even before any action had been taken at Boston or Philadelphia. As before stated, the British soldiers were withdrawn from the Illinois country but few months after their arrival there, and there are no records that any more English soldiers were ever sent to the place, or that any English governor was ever sent to the country after Wilkins' term, and the conclusion seems final that the people here were left to execute their own laws, first under St. Ange, as already told, and next under Rocheblave, who was a Frenchman, though loyal to British interests, as he should be, the country having passed into British hands. The latter — Rocheblave — was in command of the Illinois country just previous to its conquest by Clark, the history of which will be told in the next chapter.

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Chapter IV — Illinois Under American Rule.

The Continental Congress of thirteen English colonies assembled at Philadelphia September 5th, 1774. It was represented by each colony, and soon afterwards took upon itself the functions of a government of its own creation as a substitute for English authority.

On the 13th of July, 1775, three Indian departments were instituted — a southern, northern and middle. To the latter the Illinois country was assigned. Benjamin Franklin and James Wilson, of Pennsylvania, and Patrick Henry, of Virginia, were appointed commissioners for the middle department. Its remoteness prevented any practical results from growing out of this organization. Nevertheless it is worthy of record as being the first official action taken by the new government to extend its authority over this distant settlement.

The next year, 1776, on the 10th of April, Colonel George Morgan, who had been a trader at Kaskaskia, was appointed agent to succeed the former ones of this department. His residence was at Port Pitt, from whence he was required to visit the western tribes for the purpose of cultivating their friendship. But the English agents had already been among them, and not much was accomplished by the Americans through Indian alliances.

Meantime the American Revolution was soon in full tide of progress, and none took more interest in it than the frontier men of Virginia, and none were more willing to make

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sacrifices to bring it to a successful termination. Prominent among these men was Colonel George Rogers Clark, a native of Albemarle Co., Va. The settlements of Kentucky were then begun, and Clark was among the settlers, but left for Virginia on the 1st of October, 1777, for the purpose of laying a plan before Patrick Henry, the governor, for the conquest of the Illinois country. After several interviews, Governor Henry gave his consent to his plans, and he immediately set about the execution of them.

The utmost secrecy was necessary, for had it been known in advance the English could have sent a force from Detroit to waylay him on his march to the place, and also to garrison Fort Gage at Kaskaskia with a strong force. As a blind to the real destination of the expedition, Governor Henry first gave Clark instructions to proceed to the Kentucky settlements for the purpose of defending them against Indian attack. These were published, and gave rise to murmurs among the revolutionary spirits of the border that soldiers should be sent on such an errand, when they were needed in front to fight the British.

The expedition embarked from Pittsburg, and, as Clark expressed it, "shot the falls" at Louisville on the 24th of June, kept on down the river to "a little above Fort Massac," and from thence marched across the country to Kaskaskia. The place contained about 1,000 inhabitants, and was defended by a fort named Fort Gage, in honor of the British General Gage.

'Twas on the evening of the 4th of July that Clark arrived at the place. There were no British soldiers there, but a small company of French did garrison at the fort. These, as well as the private citizens, were completely taken by surprise. The presence of Americans in the streets of Kaskaskia, and even in the fort, was the first signal of invasion, and victory was won before resistance was thought of. The governor and a few leading citizens were seized and put in irons, and every inhabitant was ordered to remain in his house on pain of being

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shot if found in the street. Meanwhile the conquerors made night hideous by their tumult and outcries as they patrolled the streets to prevent the escape of the terrified citizens.

The Americans had been represented to them as monsters of cruelty, and their demeanor thus far seemed to verify the truth of such an assertion. Clark had already been informed of these slanders against him and his men, and, with a deep and far-seeing mental analysis of the harmless villagers who now lay prostrate at his feet, determined to turn the unjust falsehoods to his own advantage. His plan was first to bring them to the verge of despair, and then, by a sudden transition of clemency, overwhelm them with transports of joy.

Pending the painful suspense, M. Gibault, the priest, with a few of the aged citizens, came to the quarters of General Clark and begged that the inhabitants might be permitted to assemble in their church to take their last leave of each other before being separated. Their request was granted them on the ground that the Americans left every man free to settle his religious matters with his God; but no one must leave the town. The injunction was obeyed, and after their meeting was over Gibault and a few others again visited Clark, and, under the expectation that they were all to be driven from their homes, requested that they might be allowed to take a small amount of provisions with them, and a few articles of immediate necessity, and above all, that mothers and children should not be separated. Clark listened to these humble petitions with apparent astonishment, and in reply said, "Do you take us for savages?"

Hitherto with impenetrable immobility he had presented a harsh exterior towards them, but now the picture was changed, and never did the bright side of human nature through a rough exterior show to better advantage.

They were not to be driven from their homes or plundered of their property, nor were they to be denied the rites of their religion. He had come among them for a far different

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purpose. His mission was to introduce the new government in their midst and offer to take them under its protection — a government that France had just allied itself to, which was news to them — it having been sent to Clark after he left Fort Pitt.

The effect of this unexpected magnanimity was like a sudden recoil from despair to the full fruition of the heart's desire, and the volatile French gave vent to their feelings in transports of joy. The stock of the new government rose above par. Cahokia and all the other adjacent towns promptly yielded to Clark's authority, and young America became firmly planted on the soil of Illinois.

This was but the initiatory step in the work before the bold adventurer. Five hundred miles of wilderness intervened between him and Fort Pitt, the nearest post from which succor could be obtained in case of a reverse. The English were in force at Detroit, and could easily send a garrison to Vincennes, on the Wabash, a point intervening between him and the frontier from whence he had marched. That ultimate failure in his plans could only be averted by the most heroic policy, coupled with extraordinary activity, was evident to the mind of Clark, and he set himself about the execution of the yet unfinished work before him without loss of time.

His masterly efforts to win the good will of the French had been successful, and the next work to be done was to win the favor of the Indians, whose power was then transcendent throughout the whole interior.

Pending his efforts in this direction Gibault, the priest, volunteered to go to Vincennes with others, among whom was Captain Helm, to advocate the American cause at that poSt. In this he was successful. Those who represented the British interest there gave way to the all-prevailing sentiment in favor of the Americans, and Captain Helm became commandant of the place.

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Such was the state of affairs in the autumn of 1778, but on the 15th of December Henry Hamilton, the British governor of Detroit, suddenly appeared before Vincennes with a force of 30 British regulars, 50 French volunteers from among the citizens of Detroit, and 400 Indians. Helm had no force in command to oppose them, and on came the invaders, with Colonel Hamilton at their head, and at his post stood Captain Helm, match in hand, ready to fire a loaded cannon at them. When they had arrived within hailing distance, the tenacious defender of the fort shouted "Halt!" This brought a reply from Hamilton demanding a surrender. Helm in turn demanded the honors of war, which terms were granted, and Hamilton took possession of the place, its garrison consisting of Captain Helm and one soldier, named Henry.

The situation of Clark was now perilous in the extreme, but he took prompt measures to meet the emergency. On the 29th of January succeeding, which was in 1779, there arrived at his quarters from Vincennes Francis Vigo, a Spanish merchant. He had important news for General Clark — Hamilton had weakened his force by sending his Indians to blockade the Ohio river, in order to cut off the retreat of the Americans. "If I don't take Hamilton, Hamilton will take me" exclaimed Clark. His resolution was immediately made, and he determined to march against Vincennes. A company of French volunteers was raised, which, added to a company of his own, constituted a force of 170 men. These were to march overland to the place, while a vessel commanded by John Rogers, with 46 men, was sent down the Mississippi and up the Ohio and Wabash, to transport the necessary stores and cooperate with the land forces. The vessel started on the 10th of February, and the land forces the next day, 216 men all told, to wrest from the British empire a country large enough for a kingdom.

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When General Clark arrived at the Wabash, its waters were so swollen by late rains that the country for many miles around was inundated, and after crossing the turbulent river the invaders had to wade in water up to their arm-pits, in places, before camping ground could be reached. This they did under the inspiration of a war song, in which the whole line joined, as they struggled through the flooded valleys like amphibious beings. Having passed these watery wastes, the men encamped for the night on a rise of ground, half famished with hunger and chilled to their vitals with their cold water wadings. Fortunately a small supply of food was soon obtained from some Indian hunters, and the next day the whole force marched against Fort Sackville, which defended the town. The attack was made, and twenty-four hours' firing resulted in wounding many of Hamilton's soldiers, and he surrendered at discretion on the 24th of February.

In vain may the records of warfare be searched to find so important a conquest achieved by so small a force. The whole plan from the first looked like a desperate one, and had Hamilton not felt an assurance that he could circumvent it, he would not have weakened his own force by sending a detachment to the Ohio to cut off Clark on a retreat that he (Hamilton) felt certain would be attempted by the "rash adventurer," as he regarded him.

Clark's success was the result of an accumulation of circumstances, some of which fortuitously grew out of its apparent impossibility in the estimation of his antagonist, as well as out of the hardihood of his men, but, more than either of these, out of his own versatility of talent to turn even obstacles in his path to ultimate advantage. But this conquest, marvelous as it appeared, was only one step towards the final destiny of Illinois, as well as the whole territory north of the Ohio river.

At the negotiations in Paris in 1783, which arranged the terms of peace after the American Revolution, the most important point to agree on was to establish a western boundary

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for the new nation. The provisions of the Quebec bill of 1774 had made the Ohio river the southern line of Canada, and the British tenaciously held to this claim. Meantime the Count de Aranda, the Spanish Commissioner, claimed all the territory west of the Alleghany mountains. At this juncture the American Ministers, Jay, Adams, Franklin and Laurens discovered that the French Commissioner, Count Vergennes, was secretly using his influence in favor of the Spanish claim. This served to complicate the issue still more, and helped to weaken the resolution of the British Commissioner to insist on the rights of England in an issue which might prolong a controversy with her European rivals; for had the signing of the treaty hung on the pleasure of Spain till her consent was obtained to making the Mississippi the western boundary of the United States, it would never have been signed, and it is highly probable that England would not have conceded this point if the Spanish claim had not presented obstacles in the way of her retaining the territory in dispute, even if the Americans should relinquish it. This consideration, in addition to the American rights by virtue of Clark's conquest, settled the destiny of Illinois by placing her under the flag of the United States at the treaty of Paris, signed September 3d, 1783, and ratified by Congress at Philadelphia, January 14th, 1784.

From the first the Americans had shown a firm purpose to retain the Illinois country, and, in accordance with this resolution, the General Assembly of Virginia, in October, 1778, made provision for the forms of a temporary government there, and the following year, on the 15th of June, John Todd, a Colonel under Clark, by authority of these provisions, issued a proclamation at Kaskaskia, organizing the country into a county of Virginia, to be called Illinois County, and a fort was built the same year on the east bank of the Mississippi river, just below the mouth of the Ohio, to defend the country from the Spaniards. At that time Spain owned

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half of South America, Central America, Mexico, the West Indies, Florida, and all the territory west of the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean. She was the European power above all others that represented the intensified forms of feudalism and tyranny, bold, defiant and aggressive in her state councils, and intolerant in civil and religious rights. The fires of despotism were consuming her vitals, and soon burnt out the materials wherewith to sustain her dogged and uncompromising determination to crush the manhood out of her colonial subjects. The consequence was that her power went rapidly into decline when the portions of America over which her laws extended were brought into proximity and rivalry with the progressive spirit of young America, as the sequel proved. To record the history of her attempts to extend her dominion over the Mississippi valley would fill a volume. All of them were abortive, for the reason that her government was behind the age of the progressive civilization that had been growing into maturity under liberal English law in America. This law, when extended over the French settlements, was hailed with welcome, for the reason that it deprived them of no natural right, and most of the inhabitants took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia under Todd's administration. He was killed at the battle of Blue Licks, in Kentucky, August 18th, 1782, and was succeeded by Timothy Montbrun, a Frenchman.

From this period till the occupation of the country by St. Clair, no official records are extant of its government, and the inference is that during this hiatus no difficulties arose that could not be settled by the prieSt. It was during this interim that the first American settlement in Illinois was made. It was located in the present county of Monroe, and significantly named "New Design." The names of these settlers were James Moore, Shadrack Bond, James Garrison, Robert Kidd, and Larken Rutherford. The two latter were soldiers in General Clark's army. In the summer of 1781 all these,

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with their families, had crossed the Alleghany mountains and embarked from Pittsburg on board of what was then called an ark. When the mouth of the Ohio was reached, with many a heavy strain, they urged their ark up the current of the Mississippi to the shore opposite this settlement, debarked, and set the first permanent Anglo-American stakes into the soil of Illinois.

These men were composed of a more inflexible material than the French. There was no sympathy between them and the Indians, and the consequence was that a hostile feeling ultimately grew up between each which in time made it necessary to build a block-house as a refuge in the event of an outbreak.

By virtue of her royal charter, as already stated, the claim of Virginia to all the lands north of the Ohio river was acknowledged by common consent, and was valid, perhaps in default of its never having been disputed by a high legal court. But the magnanimity of this venerable old State made any such action unnecessary by ceding the territory in question to the United States, the deed of cession bearing date March 1st, 1784.

This broad creation of prairie and forest, seamed by a thousand rivers and enriched by countless autumnal leaf-falls and prairie growths, was then, comparatively speaking, an immaculate tablet, unscarred by the plow, and steps were promptly taken by Congress to facilitate its settlement and guarantee to each settler such lands as he selected and paid for. Accordingly on the 20th of May, 1785, an act was passed for the survey of such lands as had been purchased from the Indians. And now began that system of public surveys which may justly be called the best in the world It was begun under charge of Thomas Huchins, the same who mapped out the Ohio country by observation during a tour through it soon after Bouquet's expedition to the Muskingum. These surveys

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now form the basis for a description of every farm, and even every village lot, in the entire northweSt.

On the 5th of October, 1787, Arthur St. Clair, a venerable Revolutionary officer, was appointed governor of the entire country north of the Ohio river, which was designated as the Northwest Territory. On the 9th of July the next year he arrived at Marietta, a settlement recently made at the mouth of the Muskingum river, and set the new machinery of government in motion. The first county was laid out with dimensions large enough to include all the settlements on the river, and named Washington county. About the first of June, 1790, the governor, with the judges of the superior court, descended the Ohio river to Cincinnati, and laid out Hamilton county. A few weeks later he, with Winthrop Sargeant, secretary of the territory, proceeded to Kaskaskia and organized the settled portions of the Illinois country into one county, which, in honor of the governor, was named St. Clair county. All former official organizations here had been by authority of the State of Virginia, and had been transient in their character, but now the permanency of national authority had stamped its seal on Illinois soil. A court was established at Cahokia, and justices of the peace appointed for each of the adjacent villages.

In 1795 settlements had increased so as to make the organization of another county necessary, and Randolph county was laid out, occupying all the territory south of an east and west line drawn through the New Design settlement from the Mississippi to the Wabash river, St. Clair county occupying the territory north of this line, and Randolph that south of it.

By an act of Congress May 7th, 1800, the Northwest Territory was divided, the present limits of the State of Indiana, together with those of Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois being set off and named Indiana Territory. On the 13th of the same month William Henry Harrison was appointed governor, and John Gibson, the same to whom Logan made his

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celebrated speech, was appointed secretary. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes, at which place Harrison arrived January 10th, 1801, and immediately organized the new government.

On the 3d of January, 1805, an election was held by order of Governor Harrison, to elect representatives for the assembly at Vincennes. The legislature met July 29th, 1805. Shadrack Bond and William Biggs, were chosen to represent St. Clair county, and George Fisher, Randolph county.

By an act of Congress approved January 11th, 1805, Indiana Territory was divided; all that portion of it lying north of a line due east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan being set off and named Michigan Territory. This only took from the Indiana Territory the portion of Michigan between Lakes Huron and Michigan, that portion of the present State of Michigan bordering on Lake Superior having been annexed to the state since that period, to offset for the loss of territory claimed by Ohio on her southern border. On February 3d, 1809, Indiana Territory was again divided by setting off the territory of Illinois, embracing its present limits, together with the present limits of Wisconsin and the peninsular portion of Michigan. Ninian Edwards was appointed governor, his commission, bearing date April 24th, 1809. Nathaniel Pope was appointed secretary. The seat of government was fixed at Kaskaskia, at which place Governor Edwards assumed his official duties on the 11th of the following June.

The machinery of the first grade of government was now put in practice. By it the governor and judges constituted the legislature.

By an act of Congress May 21st, 1812, the territory of Illinois was promoted to the second grade of government. Up to this time every county and town officer had been appointed by the governor; now they were to be elected by the people, but the right of suffrage was extended to those only who had paid a territorial tax.

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Three new counties, Madison, Gallatin and Johnson, were organized, making five in all, and an election was ordered in each to elect five members of the legislative council, seven representatives, and one delegate to Congress. Shadrack Bond was elected to the latter office, being the first one elected by the people for that position.

The great earthquake of 1811, the centre of which was at New Madrid, on the Mississippi below the mouth of the Ohio river, was severely felt in Southern Illinois. It began on the night of the 15th of December, and a succession of shocks were felt for several days succeeding. The ground opened at many places in the vicinity of New Madrid and emitted sulphurous steam, closing again with a loud noise, and throwing jets of mud and water high into the air. Near this place much ground was sunk, and became permanently covered with water. The shocks were felt along the entire valley of the Ohio river, and up the Mississippi river they were reported at St. Louis, which was as far as settlements then extended.

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Chapter V — Illinois in the War of 1812.

To write the history of all the scenes of violence that marked the contest between the Indians and the frontiersmen during the pioneer age of the northwest would fill many volumes, but, happily for Illinois, she has been comparatively exempt from Indian wars as they have raged in Ohio and Indiana, no great Indian battle having ever been fought within her limits, for the reason that the force and power of the Indians was greatly weakened before settlements had progressed to any great extent in this territory.

The battle of Tippecanoe, fought between the Shawanese and other tribes against the forces of General Harrison, November 7th, 1811, resulted disastrously to the Indians, and doubtless prevented a confederation of the tribes of Illinois from combining against the settlers of this state by any concerted movement. Owing to this cause Indian hostilities here were confined to small skirmishes, personal encounters, or to Indian scouts on pilfering expeditions. In almost all these the Indians got the worst of it, as the exploits of Illinois pioneers have abundantly shown.

Another reason why the Indians here were less powerful for mischief and less aggressive than those farther east was owing to their greater distance from Canada, at which place their "British Fathers," as they called them, had subsidized all the tribes north of the Ohio into their friendship by an annual distribution of presents at Maiden.

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The effect on the minds of the Indians of this prodigal generosity was prodigious, for they in their simplicity believed that disinterested benevolence was the incentive on the part of the givers. In this they were mistaken, for there was a policy in it which in due time came to the surface.

Even after the fires of the Revolution had died away the English left the region of the lakes with reluctance, retaining Detroit, Sandusky and other posts till 1796, contrary to treaty stipulations, giving as a reason that the posts were held to secure the collection of private debts due from citizens of the United States to British subjects. Meantime the persistence of the British of Canada to furnish the Indians with arms and to encourage them to resist the Americans gave great offense to the latter. This state of things lasted from 1789 to 1812, and embittered the minds of the border men against the British to such an extent that, had their counsels ruled in the nation, war would have been declared against England in 1793, when she built a fort at the Maumee rapids, more than twenty miles inside of the Canada line.

Pending these accumulating grievances the French Revolution convulsed Europe, and out of its dissolution Napoleon rose into power. Between him and England there was no peace. As years rolled on the war between France and England grew into immense proportions, and the latter did not hesitate to supply her navy with seamen from the decks of American vessels. This latter insult to the nation, added to many others that preceded it, was the cause of the declaration of the war of 1812. It was made the 18th of June. The news rang through the western forests, carried by fleet-footed messengers, and the Indians hovered around the standard of their "British Father" in Canada, thinking the time had come when the Americans should be driven from their soil by the aid of English bayonets.

General Hull was promptly sent to Detroit with a force to garrison the place and hold it against the British in Canada.

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He had only been there a short time when he found a powerful and wide-spread Indian confederacy arrayed against him, which was the result of the previous years of British patronage and generosity. Their savage retainers held possession of the forest path through which General Hull had marched to Detroit, and closed the door behind him. Meantime the British, by means of their fleet on Lake Erie, could concentrate their forces upon him with facility, and he soon found himself menaced in front by a powerful foe, while his rear bristled with Indian tomahawks and scalping-knives.

Fort Dearborn at Chicago, which had been built in 1803-4, was included in the military district under his charge, and during his waning fortunes he determined to send a messenger to the place to give Captain Heald, its commander, timely warning to save the garrison by retreating to Fort Wayne if the place could not hold out until relief could come.

General Hull had in his camp at that time a friendly Pottowatomie chief, named Winnemac, and to him was the mission confided. He was faithful to his trust, and on the 9th of August arrived at Fort Dearborn and handed his dispatch to Captain Heald.

War had been declared by the United States against England, Michilimacinac had been taken, and Detroit was hard pressed by the British and their red allies. This was the burden of news which the messenger brought to this far-off post in their isolated hermitage. Farther, Captain Heald was ordered to evacuate Fort Dearborn provided he had not means to defend it. Under an impression that he had not he ordered an evacuation, though against the advice of his subordinate officers.

The 15th of August was set for the day, and the garrison, mustering 66 men, started on their route for Fort Wayne. On arriving at the locality where Eighteenth street now terminates at the lake, they were attacked by five times their number of Pottowatomies. The soldiers in vain charged upon their

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numerous foes, with Captain Wells at their head, who had arrived the day before from Fort Wayne to help defend them. Wells was killed, and with him fell more than half of the heroic band of soldiers. The remainder, with Mrs. Helm,the Kinzie family,and some of the wives of the officers, became prisoners, and were subsequently ransomed by Mr. Forsythe, the Indian agent at Peoria, and others.

This massacre was in the interest of the British in their contest with the Americans, though not done under their orders, but under savage responsibility on British account. This opening of the war was all in favor of the British. The campaign had been short and decisive, but a new one was at hand, destined to offset fourfold for its disgrace.

On the 24th of September General Harrison received a dispatch from the president that he had been appointed to the command of the northweSt. The first thing for him to do was to take effective measures for the protection of the most remote frontier, after which the British were to be driven from Detroit.

General Shelby, of Kentucky, entered heartily into the work, and had raised an army of volunteers and placed them under command of General Hopkins, who was at Vincennes late in September awaiting orders, and while General Harrison was approaching Detroit, his forces were destined for the Illinois service, to destroy the Kickapoo villages along the Illinois river.

On the 11th of October two companies of United States Rangers, under command of Colonel Russell, were ordered to march immediately to Edwardsville, Illinois, where they were

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to be placed under command of Governor Edwards to be added to his forces. Thus united, the army was to march against the Indian towns on the Illinois river, in which vicinity it was to form a junction with the army of General Hopkins. The latter started from Vincennes early in October, crossed the Wabash at Fort Harrison, and began its march into the broad prairies of the interior toward the objective point. They were composed mostly of raw recruits who had never seen service, and the country they had entered seemed strange and bewildering in its vastness. The prairie fires lit up the sky each night with lurid glares and wrought upon their fears, and at the end of the fourth day's march the whole army refused to obey orders. Accordingly the next morning the volunteers turned backward and retraced their steps by the way they had advanced, despite the orders of their General.

While these unsoldier-like men were retreating before they had come in sight of the enemy, Governor Edwards' army were advancing according to the original plan, and arriving at an Indian town on the east bank of Peoria Lake, found it deserted except by a single Indian and a squaw. The luckless brave was shot at the first sight of him, and the squaw, after many shots having been fired at her under the impression that she was a brave, was taken captive. She was not wounded, but gave vent to her feelings in a flood of tears, and was soon set at liberty. The country had never before been penetrated by Americans, and the number of Indians it contained was not known. No tidings of General Hopkins were received, and it was deemed expedient to retreat, lest superior numbers might be brought against them. The governor therefore returned to Camp Russell and discharged the volunteers.

Peoria at this time contained a mixed population of French and Indians, and the former were accused by the Americans of befriending the Indians and supplying them with ammunition. Under this apprehension a gunboat expedition under Captain Craig was to act in conjunction with the land forces of Governor

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Edwards, and General Hopkins, to supply the two armies with provisions and the necessary stores for the campaign. This failed to make a connection with the army of the governor, but advanced to Peoria, burnt the town, and taking most of the French inhabitants prisoners, transported them down the Illinois river to the banks of the Mississippi, and turned them loose on its desolate banks without food. After much suffering the outcasts found their way back to their homes, which, though laid in ashes, were rebuilt, and Peoria continued to be a French trading post till American settlers came to the place. The writer has no data at hand to show the grounds of suspicion of French alliance with the Indians, or the kind of aid furnished them by which the Americans felt aggrieved, and by which they justified their attack upon the town and abduction of its French citizens. Whatever these grounds were, it is certain that no subsequent attack was made on the place, by which an inference may be made that the first one was unnecessary.

The next year, 1813, another expedition was set on foot from Camp Russell. It crossed the Illinois two miles above its mouth, thence went to the Mississippi, and marched up its east bank to the lower rapids, from whence it went across the country to the Illinois river, and arriving at Peoria, built a fort, which, in honor of General George Rogers Clark, was called Fort Clark. The expedition then advanced up the river to Gomas village, destroyed it, and returned to Camp Russell. This closed the campaign of 1813 in Illinois, and it must be confessed that it was by a very tenacious and farfetched resolution to defend the state that the war had been waged against the Indians, and especially against the French of Peoria.

The campaign of 1814 opened with increased activity along the frontiers of Illinois, for now an actual enemy was at their gates. Notwithstanding the British had been driven from Detroit and signally defeated both on sea and land by the

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forces of General Harrison and Commodore Perry, Michilimacinac and Prairie du Chien were still in their possession, and against the latter an expedition was planned. It started from St. Louis about the 1st of May in four barges, on board of which were 200 men under charge of Governor Clark, of Missouri. They arrived at the place and took possession without resistance, almost the entire British force, under the celebrated Colonel Dickson, having left for Canada to recruit the British army there, who were being hard pressed by the Americans.

The following July a large force of British and Indians returned and laid siege to the place. It was taken after a stout resistance, and the garrison were sent to St. Louis as paroled prisoners.

The following August an expedition was fitted out at Cape au Gris, destined for the upper Mississippi, under command of General Z. Taylor, the same who afterwards became President of the United States.

It started on the 24th of August, in armed barges, with 334 men. A little above Rock Island they were attacked by a superior force of British and Indians under the command of the celebrated Black Hawk,and defeated after a desperate battle.

This terminated the war in Illinois and Wisconsin, as the negotiations of Ghent soon followed, articles of peace being signed December 24th, 1814, and the British forces withdrew from the beautiful lake country to its northern shore, and the Indians once more settled into peace.

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Chapter VI — Administrations of the Governors of Illinois.

In January, 1818, the territorial legislature sent a petition to Congress for admission into the Union as an independent state. Nathaniel Pope was then delegate, and through his instrumentality the petition was not only granted, but the bill was so amended as to extend the northern limits of the state from its proposed boundary to latitude 42° 30'. Its first limit was a line drawn due west from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river. The amended bill became a law April 18th, but the act for admission of the state into the Union was not passed till December 30th, 1818.

In July, 1818, a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a constitution, of which Jesse B. Thomas was president and William C. Greenup secretary. The following are the names of the counties then in existence, all of which were represented in the convention: Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington and Franklin.

This constitution was not submitted to a vote of the people for ratification. By its provisions judges, prosecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, recorders and justices of the peace, were all appointed by the governor or legislature, instead of being elected by the people. The first election under it for governor was held in September, 1818, which resulted in the election of Shadrack Bond, and Pierre Menard was

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elected lieutenant governor. They were inaugurated October 6th.

In 1820 the seat of government was removed to Vandalia. Among its earliest labors was the creation of the Illinois state bank, with a capital of half a million dollars, based on the credit of the state.

In August, 1822, Edward Coles was elected governor by a small plurality over his principal opponent, Joseph Phillips, there being two other candidates in the field. Adolphus F. Hubbard was elected lieutenant governor. The inauguration took place December 5th. In this election the final contest was involved between those who wished to make Illinois a slave state and those who wished to make it a free state, and on this issue the people were not very unequally divided.

Slavery had existed here ever since 1720, at which time Philip Francis Penault, as agent for the company of St. Phillips, introduced it. The company of which he was agent was an offshoot of that established by the celebrated John Law in 1717. By the distempered imaginations of those interested in the Law company, the whole country was looked upon as a mining field for precious metals, and to work the mines 500 slaves were purchased in St. Domingo and transported to the Illinois country. After this theory had been dispelled, a part of them were employed in working the lead mines of Missouri and Dubuque, while a portion of them were purchased by the French settlers, and the offspring of the latter became the slave population of Illinois down to the time of Governor Coles' election. By the ordinance of 1787 slavery had been prohibited in the entire territory of the northwest, of which Illinois was a part, and it existed here only by means of various legal subterfuges by which the provisions of the ordinance had been averted.

Governor Coles was an able and uncompromising advocate of Freedom, and it was evident to those representing the other side that unless a new constitution which fully recognized

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slavery as the future policy of the state could be obtained, that this institution must ultimately die out. Accordingly measures were taken by the slavery party to obtain it. To this end it was necessary by law to get a two-thirds vote of the general assembly in favor of calling an election of the people to vote on the question of changing the constitution. This was obtained by dint of aggressive and defiant means best known to those who have been drilled in a school of partisan politics, and now the slavery party were confident of success. The election was proclaimed, but eighteen months intervened before it was to be held, and it is probable that no state election was ever held since the United States became a nation in which so much determination of purpose was thrown into the arena. The cause of Freedom triumphed, 6,640 votes being polled against a convention to change the constitution against 4,972 in favor of it.

This was the Waterloo of the slavery advocates in Illinois, and to Governor Coles more than to any other man is due the credit of the victory.

In the spring of 1825, by invitation of Governor Coles, General La Fayette, who was then in America, visited Illinois. The governor had previously made the acquaintance of La Fayette in Paris, and the meeting of these distinguished statesmen in this distant frontier, as Illinois then was, made the fires of freedom burn anew, and was a season of rejoicing to the French as well as the Americans.

In the autumn election of 1826 Ninian Edwards was elected governor and Wm. Kinney lieutenant governor of Illinois, and were inaugurated December 6th. No exciting questions came up under his administration, and the governor turned his attention to improving the finances of the state. In this he was successful, the annual expenses of the state being $20,000, and the revenue $35,000 — small sums compared to its present outgoes and incomes.

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In August, 1830, John Reynolds was elected governor and Zadoc Casey lieutenant governor, and were inaugurated December 9th. The great event of his administration was the Sauk war. The Sauks and Foxes then occupied the territory intervening between the Rock and Mississippi rivers. By a treaty held in St. Louis November 3d, 1804, this tribe had ceded nearly all the lands they held in Illinois and Wisconsin to the United States, General Harrison representing the United States, and five chiefs representing the Sauk and Fox and Winnebago nations in the treaty. By its provisions the Indians were to retain their lands till they were wanted for settlements. During the war of 1812 with England, through the influence of Colonel Dickson, a British officer at Prairie du Chien, a part of this tribe had allied themselves to the British, and these were called "The British Band." Black Hawk was their acknowledged leader, while Keokuk, the principal chief of the tribe, was opposed to the policy of resistance to the United States. Black Hawk's village was on the tongue of land at the mouth of the Rock river, between it and the Mississippi.

After the peace at the close of the war of 1812, amicable relations existed with the Indians till July 15th, 1830, at which time Keokuk made a final cession at Prairie du Chien to the United States of all the land his tribe held east of the Misssisippi river.

This was done without the knowledge of Black Hawk, and when this tenacious old veteran learned the news his indignation was aroused, for he had always been opposed to yielding territory to the whites. By its stipulations Black Hawk and his band were to leave their village the next year and occupy land west of the Mississippi. Keokuk used his influence to persuade the whole tribe to do it, while Black Hawk took the other side. Keokuk with his band crossed the river, but Black Hawk, instead of quietly submitting, scoured the country from Canada to the Mississippi to secure aid to his cause. He declared the treaty of 1804 to have been obtained through fraud, and determined to hold his position.

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During the winter of 1830-1, as usual, his whole tribe left their village on a hunting excursion, to procure furs wherewith to pay their debts to the traders and buy new supplies of woods. On their return in the following April they found their village in possession of the palefaces. The fur trader at Rock Island, a former friend of Black Hawk, had purchased the very ground on which the village stood, and he and his associates were making preparations to cultivate the adjacent corn-field of 700 acres. The indignation of the Indians was now aroused, but, owing to the temperate counsels of Black Hawk, a compromise was made by which the field was divided between the new claimants and the Indians, each to cultivate their respective half.

This truce did not prevent disputes, and even trespassing on each other's rights, and on the 18th of May eight of the white settlers united in a memorial to Governor Reynolds setting forth their grievances. On the 27th he made a call for 700 volunteers to protect the settlers. General Gaines then held command of this military district, and reached Fort Armstrong, on Rock Island, on the 7th of June. To the governor's call 1,600 volunteers had responded, and were promptly on the spot ready to execute the orders of General Gaines. When they came to Black Hawk's village he yielded to the situation and crossed over to the west side with his tribe on the night of the 24th. General Gaines took possession of his village on the 26th. Black Hawk meantime, with his starving followers, were encamped on the opposite side of the river, with a white flag fluttering over their heads. On the 30th a treaty was held with him, and Black Hawk gave up his intentions of holding his lands. Rations were dealt out to the submissive Indians, and the volunteers were dismissed.

Early in April the following year, 1832, Black Hawk in an evil hour recrossed the Mississippi with his band and marched up the Rock river, under pretense, perhaps sincere, of paying a visit to his Winnebago friends in Wisconsin, to plant corn

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in their country. General Atkinson then held command of Fort Armstrong, and sent messengers after him to warn him back. Black Hawk paid no heed to the warning, but continued on his way till Dixon's ferry was reached, where he encamped.

Pending their stay at the place Mrs. Dixon invited Black Hawk and his friends to dine with her, she herself playing hostess at the table and entering freely into conversation with her tawny guests, and Black Hawk, as he acknowledged, felt complimented by her respectful attentions to himself and friends, especially because she sat at the table and enjoyed the dinner with them.

The news of Black Hawk's return to Illinois soon reached the ears of Governor Reynolds, who forthwith raised a force of 1,800 volunteers, to be put under the command of General Whitesides, to follow him. The army reached Dixon the 12th of May. Meantime Black Hawk had left the place and encamped on the banks of Sycamore creek, a tributary of the Rock river thirty miles above.

Two days after the arrival of the volunteers at Dixon, an ambitious officer named Stillman begged the privilege of the general in command of making a reconnoisance on Black Hawk's camp. With reluctance it was granted, and Major Stillman started with 275 men for the adventure. Black Hawk was entertaining his Winnebago friends at a dog feast when the volunteers approached his camp, and he sent a party of six men to meet them under protection of a white flag. By some misdirection this party was fired on by the undisciplined volunteers and two of them killed while in retreat. Pending this melee the forces of Stillman were scattered beyond the control of their commander while giving chase to the flying truce-bearers, and Black Hawk, justly indignant at the treatment

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they had received, raised the war-whoop and repelled the attack with his accustomed spirit. The volunteers were in no condition to even act on the defensive, and fled in confusion before him, leaving 11 of their number dead. This was the first blood drawn in the Sauk war. The fugitives reached Dixon the next day, stinging under the most disgraceful defeat ever received by white men at the hands of Indians. This insignificant affair gave Black Hawk a crumb of comfort, but it stimulated the government to prompt action to prevent the Winnebagos and Pottawattomies from taking up the hatchet.

At that time the northern frontier settlements of Illinois barely reached Bureau creek, Plainville and Naperville. The lead mines had drawn to the vicinity of Galena settlements twelve or fifteen miles in extent, and Chicago was then a village of two or three hundred inhabitants, sheltered by the protection of Fort Dearborn.

The alarm was soon carried to these frontiers, chiefly through the efforts of that noble old Pottowattomie chief, Shabena, and by his timely warning the settlers on the Bureau fled to the fort at Ottawa, while those around Plainfield and Naperville took refuge at Fort Dearborn, but unhappily at Indian creek, under a treacherous sense of security, a few families paid no heed to the warning, and in a short time 70 painted savages came upon them and butchered 15 defenseless victims. Two boys escaped by flight, and two girls, Sylvia and Rachel Hall, were taken captive to the camp of Black Hawk. They were treated kindly, and soon ransomed through the influence of the Winnebagoes.

The news of an Indian war on the frontier spread rapidly through every hamlet in the eastern states, and measures were promptly taken by the administration to meet the emergency. Nine companies were sent to the scene under command of General Scott. He arrived at Fort Dearborn at 2 o'clock on the morning of the 8th of July. The cholera had broken out among his men on the way, and the news of his arrival and of

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the fearful contagion he had brought soon spread through the village, and most of its inhabitants fled from the place before daylight.

While General Scott is detained at Fort Dearborn by this fatal duress, let us follow the fortunes of Black Hawk.

The next day after the defeat of Stillman General Whiteside led his entire force to the scene. There were the tent marks of Black Hawk's army, and the lifeless bodies of 11 victims divested of their scalps, which were doubtless dangling from the belts of as many Sauk warriors. But the wily Black Hawk had fled northward, whither was not known.

The 2,400 men who had volunteered in the service had now seen enough Indian fighting to gratify their curiosity and, their term of service having nearly expired, they were discharged and 2,000 more men recruited to fill their places.

During the interim Black Hawk was busy with his scouting parties, chiefly aimed against the settlements around Galena. Many small skirmishes were fought in this direction, of which the attack on Apple River fort on June 6th, where Elizabeth now stands, was the most notable. The place was besieged for a whole day, but the obstinate defenders showed no signs of yielding, and Black Hawk, who himself commanded the attack, retreated. On his way back to his headquarters on the 26th, at Kellogg's grove, he came in collision with a detachment of troops under Colonel Dement, numbering 150 men. The veteran chief tried to draw Dement into an ambuscade, which he barely escaped, and brought his men safely near the buildings of Mr. Kellogg at the grove, taking refuge in them, from whence Black Hawk retired after an ineffectual attempt to dislodge them. A small number of men were killed, on each side.

After the failure of the first campaign, General Whitesides refused any command but enlisted in the ranks, and the new forces raised were divided into three divisions, to be

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commanded by General Alexander Posey, General Milton K. Alexander, and General James D. Henry, the whole under general command of General Brady. But the latter was soon disabled by sickness, and the chief command devolved upon General Atkinson.

Seeing this formidable force arrayed against him, Black Hawk determined to retreat to the north and save himself by crossing the Mississippi river, but he was overtaken on the banks of the Wisconsin, at Blue Mounds, by General Henry's division, and a battle ensued July 21st, in which he lost 50 men while crossing the river.

Black Hawk continued his retreat after the battle till he was again overtaken, August 2d, near the mouth of Bad Ax river, in Wisconsin. A battle followed, in which nearly the entire remnant of Black Hawk's army were killed or drowned in attempting to cross the river. Black Hawk fled to Prairie La Cross, a Winnebago village, where he surrendered himself to Chaetar and One-eyed Decora, two Winnebago chiefs, who delivered him up to General Street, the Indian agent at Prairie du Chien, on the 27th of AuguSt.

As soon as the cholera had partially subsided among the troops of General Scott, he moved his quarters from Fort Dearborn to the banks of the Desplaines river, where, after his soldiers had sufficiently recruited, he sent the main body, under command of Colonel Cummings, to the present site of Beloit, then a deserted Winnebago village.

Here instructions came from the general in chief command for the army to march down Rock river to Fort Armstrong, on Rock Island, to which place General Scott with his staff had arrived by a hasty march across the country by way of Naperville.

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On the 10th of September the Indian prisoners were sent to Jefferson Barracks, just below St. Louis, from which place Black Hawk was sent to Washington, arriving there April 3d, 1833. On the 26th he was sent to Fortress Monroe, where he remained till the 4th of June, when he was returned to his people without further incarceration, for nothing worse than honorable warfare could be charged against him. On the way he was exhibited as a sort of lion in all the large cities through which he passed, and the winning smiles of the ladies showered on him were rewarded with compliments in broken English, amusing, earnest, and sometimes ludicrous. But the old veteran was not always flattering in his words. He prophesied that the white man would see the day that their courts of justice and their prisons would be insufficient to protect the community against the criminals that civilization encouraged and developed.

On his return he was restored to his tribe as a chief subordinate to Keokuk. He died October 3d, 1835, at his home on the Des Moines river, Iowa, near the present village of Iowaville, in Wappelo county. He was buried in a sitting posture, and a large mound raised over his grave, which still marks the resting place of him who may with propriety be called the last native defender of the soil of Illinois. These were the stirring events of Governor Reynolds' administration, the like of which cannot be repeated for want of materials.

Zadoc Casey, the lieutenant governor, was elected to congress in 1832, and consequently resigned his position, whereupon L. D. Ewing was chosen to fill his place. In 1834 Governor Reynolds was elected to congress, which elevated Mr. Ewing to the governor's chair to fill the expiring term, which was only fifteen days.

Joseph Duncan was elected governor in August, 1834, and inaugurated the succeeding November the 17th. Alexander

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M. Jenkins was at the same time elected lieutenant governor. Under this administration a new state bank was chartered, with a capital of $1,500,000. By an act of the legislature March 4th, 1837, the capital stock of this bank was increased $2,000,000, which the state itself assumed, and also assumed stock of the Shawneetown branch of this bank to the amount of $1,000,000 more. The object of this financial scheme was to enable the state to build internal improvements for transportation by slack water navigation of the Wabash and Rock rivers, and also by means of railroads, the objects of which were to divert trade from St. Louis to Alton. The building of the Illinois and Michigan canal was also a cherished state policy. That these efforts were premature and in some directions impracticable the suspension of specie payments by the banks in May, 1837, proved. The following July, at a special session of the legislature, the state came to the rescue of the banks and legalized their suspension.

Thomas Carlin was elected governor in August, 1838, and inaugurated December 3d. Stinson H. Anderson was elected lieutenant governor. The state was then casting about in every direction for relief from the financial embarrassments which had lately presented such a barrier in her path. In this emergency, instead of retrenching taxation by abandoning a portion of the public works it had undertaken in order to assure the completion of at least a portion of them, by which to secure an income to the state, the legislature made additional appropriations, and extended its plans for public improvements into new channels not before contemplated. The governor was authorized to negotiate a loan of $4,000,000 for the single object of prosecuting work on the Illinois and Michigan canal, which was the only successful scheme that had yet been undertaken. Up to the following January, 1839, there had been but $1,400,000 expended on the canal. The onerous burden of state indebtedness, together with the advocacy of repudiation by a strong party had the effect to almost, if not

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quite, destroy public confidence in the credit of the state. Of all the public works she had undertaken, the portion of the Northern Cross railroad from Meredosia to Springfield only was finished, it being put in operation November 8th, 1838 — the first in the state operated by steam power, but it was a pitiful showing for the immense expenditures that had been thus far dispensed with such prodigality. Its revenues could only come from local patronage, barely sufficient to pay its running expenses. After July, 1841, no further efforts were made to pay interest on the public debt, and early the next year the state banks broke down completely, The public debt then was $14,000,000 — a large sum for the young state in its poverty of both means and credit, and its bonds declined to 14 cents on the dollar, without buyers at even that price.

While these financial questions were vexing the brains of Illinois financiers, there were other issues growing into prominence on the soil of Illinois destined to revolutionize the whole political fabric of the union. In the presidential canvass of 1840 "log cabins and hard cider" were not the only things thought of. James G. Birney, a citizen of Fulton county, had the moral courage to allow himself to be the presidential candidate for the anti-slavery party. This was the first official action in the United States taken in this direction, and southern Illinois may in this justly claim the honor of being the cradle of that party crowned with success under another of her sons at a later date — Abraham Lincoln.

Thomas Ford was elected governor in August, and inaugurated December 8th, 1842. John Moore was elected lieutenant-governor. Happily for the welfare of the state one of the public works already begun had all the elements of practical utility that the most exacting capitalist could ask. This was the Illinois and Michigan canal. The abandonment of all the others was a relief to the state, while its best hopes centered in the completion of this. To do this

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required $3,000,000, according to the original plan, which was to make it 40 feet wide at the bottom, 60 feet wide at the surface, and of a depth sufficient for six feet of water to flow from Lake Michigan directly into it through the summit between Lockport and Chicago. By reducing these dimensions to a shallow cut the work could be done for $1,600,000, and the canal could be supplied with water by a steam pump. It now remained to negotiate the necessary loan to finish the canal as per the reduced dimensions. To accomplish this result the following gentlemen met in council in the fall of 1842: Arthur Bronson, of New York, and Wm. B. Ogden, Justin Butterfield and Isaac N. Arnold, of Chicago. At this meeting Mr. Bronson proposed to offer to the bondholders the canal and its revenues when finished, including its landed equities, as security for the advances required to finish it. The plan was timely, simple and just, and it only required the sanction of the state to put it into practice. Mr. Butterfield drew up the necessary bill for presentation to the legislature, and Governor Ford used his influence in its favor. Mr. Arnold was then chairman of the committee on finance, and rendered essential service in the passage of the bill, which only escaped defeat by a small majority. Work was resumed on the canal as soon as the loan was obtained by the terms which the new bill made it legal to offer to the bondholders, which was not till 1845. The canal was finished April 19th, 1848.

Financial embarrassment was not the only thing against which Governor Ford had to contend. The Mormons had settled at Nauvoo in 1840, and early in his administration disturbances with them began. Acts of violence soon accumulated on both sides, till the Mormons left the state in the spring of 1846.

The Mexican war was declared during his administration,

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and the first regiment of Illinois volunteers ever enrolled for field service was sent to this war.

Augustus C. French was elected governor at the August election in 1846, and inaugurated December 9th. Joseph B. Wells was elected lieutenant governor. The Mexican war was then in full tide of progress, and five more regiments of Illinois volunteers were raised by the state for its service. The treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, which bears date of February 2d, 1848, established peace between the two belligerent nations, and the soldiers returned and were honorably discharged.

On the 7th of June, 1847, a convention was held in Springfield for the purpose of framing a new constitution. Its labors were concluded on the 31st of the following August, and the new constitution was ratified by a vote of the people in March, 1848. By its provisions a new election of state officers was ordered.

Governor French was reëlected, which gave him two terms, though the first term was abridged to two years. Wm. Murtry was lieutenant governor during his second term. Previous to the constitution of 1848 there had been no subdivision of counties into civil townships, and consequently no township organization. This machinery for the details of local government was authorized by the new constitution, and was perfected in 1851, according to the system now in practice. The law of homestead exemption was also introduced the same year.

Joel A. Matteson was elected governor in November, 1852, and inaugurated January 9th, 1853. G. Koerner was lieutenant governor. At the same general election for governor a new element in politics was evolved by making up a ticket for state officers representing the abolition party, at the head of which stood the name of Dexter A. Knowlton, candidate for governor, and Philo Carpenter, candidate for lieutenant governor. This was the first attempt to recognize this party politically in the state. It was unsuccessful, as the candidates

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were not elected, but to offset the defeat a substantial victory to the anti-slavery cause was gained in November the same year by the election of E. B. Washburne to congress. This was accomplished by a union of the old whig party with the anti-slavery party. The victory thus accomplished was no barren one, for none knew better than Mr. Washburne how to make the most of it, and from it grew the events, step by step, which brought Abraham Lincoln before the people as an eloquent exponent of the cause that Mr. Washburne's election had crowned with the prestige of victory and honored with his official service.

Another notable event during Governor Matteson's administration was a state law for the support of public schools, passed on the 15th of February, 1855.

Wm. H. Bissell was elected governor at the November election in 1856, and inaugurated January 12th, 1857. John Wood was elected lieutenant governor. It was during the eventful campaign of Buchanan and Fremont's presidential canvass. Mr. Bissell was a pronounced republican, and his election was a crushing blow to the old party in power. As might be supposed, his administration was a strong one, not only in both branches of the legislature, but political circles outside contributed their share to keep the political cauldron boiling. In the winter of 1858-9 a United States senator was to be chosen to fill the place of Judge Douglas' expiring term. His reëlection was looked upon to be a necessity to vindicate the position he had taken in destroying the Missouri Compromise. Meanwhile the republican party were equally tenacious to defend the position which they had taken antagonistic to the extension of slavery into new territories, and for an instrument wherewith to accomplish this result by the defeat of Douglas, their choice fell on Abraham Lincoln as a candidate to oppose him for the senatorship. The joint debate between these two representatives of their respective parties forms an era in national politics not soon to be forgotten. Both

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were champions, and under their forensic power the issue gathered force throughout the length and breadth of the United States. Mr. Douglas won the election by a small majority in the legislature, while Mr. Lincoln had a small majority of the voters, but his very defeat crowned him with laurels. His native power had been shown, and that was all the real exigency demanded, as was proven by the sequel.

On the 8th of March, 1860, Governor Bissell died, and John Wood, the lieutenant governor, served the ensuing ten months of the term. On the 16th of the following May the great republican convention met in Chicago. That this place was selected for it gave evidence of the commanding position of the state, especially in an issue which even then threatened the peace of the whole Union. On the third ballot at this convention Abraham Lincoln was nominated as the republican candidate for the presidency, and Hannibal Hamlin was nominated as candidate for the vice presidency, when the convention adjourned.

Richard Yates was elected governor of Illinois at the autumn election of 1860, and inaugurated January 14th, 1861. Thomas Marshall was elected lieutenant governor. The alarms of civil war were even then sounding, but when Fort Sumter was fired on these alarms became realities. Then it was that our Illinois senator, Stephen A. Douglas, covered himself with glory, and honored his state by a hearty endorsement of Mr. Lincoln's policy, and although he soon afterwards died, he had set a noble example of patriotism and magnanimity to his party, which had a most salutary effect on the state and on the issues of the war.

The number of troops sent from Illinois to the field was 185,941 infantry, 32,082 cavalry, and 7,277 artillery, making an aggregate of 225,300. Besides these, the array of Illinois men who acted as leaders of armies in the field or of public opinion in favor of the principles for which the Union armies were fighting, stands at the head of the list in the whole

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United States, and furnishes an historical record worthy of a great state. The following are the prominent names of this list, to which large numbers might be added of less fame but equal merit as to zeal for the cause: Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, Ulysses S. Grant, John A. Logan, Elihu B. Washburne, Elmer E. Ellsworth, Colonel Mulligan, B. J. Sweet, Richard Yates, Richard J. Oglesby, John M. Palmer, John L. Beveridge, E. D. Baker, John F. Farnsworth, R. J. Ingersoll.

Richard J. Oglesby was elected governor at the November election of 1864, and was inaugurated January 1865. Wm. Bross was elected lieutenant governor at the same time. Peace followed the next spring, and the ratification of the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States, which abolished slavery, was promptly effected by the Illinois legislature. The following April, on the morning of the 15th, news came of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, which had taken place the evening previous at Ford's theatre. The name of the assassin was John Wilkes Booth. No state in the Union felt the force of this cruel blow more than Illinois. Mr. Lincoln was her honored son, her pride, and it was like a death in the family. The state was in mourning, business was laid aside in cities, and their stores were closed without waiting for public orders to do so, and grief and indignation took possession of every heart.

John M. Palmer was elected governor of Illinois at the November election of 1868, and inaugurated January 11th, 1869. John Doughterty was lieutenant governor. The great feature of his administration was the convention which met in Springfield December 13th, 1869, to amend the constitution of the state, which had not been changed since 1848. Mr. Kellogg speaks of the work this convention accomplished as follows: "In adopting the constitution of 1870 the people forbid special legislation, condemned loose methods of legislation, stopped reckless debt on the part of the state, county

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and municipality, restricted very materially the power of the legislature, while enjoining particular radical changes, increased the reverence for law, the responsibility of those who administer it, and gave to the minority in every county a voice in making the laws. No other state constitution embraces so many inhibitions, and none so many direct mandates."

Richard J. Oglesby was reëlected governor in the autumn of 1872, and inaugurated January 13th, 1873. John L. Beveridge was elected lieutenant governor at the same time. January 23d Governor Oglesby resigned, and was elected to the United States senate. Mr. Beveridge now became governor. Among the most important measures during his administration was one for reorganizing the state institutions, charitable, reformatory, and penal, of which the following are the names: Northern Hospital for the Insane, at Elgin; Eastern Hospital for the Insane, at Kankakee; Central Hospital for the Insane, at Jacksonville; Southern Hospital for the Insane, at Anna; Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville; Institution for the Blind, at Jacksonville; Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children, at Lincoln; Eye and Ear Infirmary, at Chicago; Illinois Orphan Home, at Normal; Industrial University, at Urbana; State Normal University, at Normal; Southern Normal University, at Carbondale; Illinois State Penitentiary, at Joliet; Southern Illinois Penitentiary, at Chester; State Reform School, at Pontiac.

Shelby M. Cullom was elected governor in the fall of 1876, and inaugurated January 8th, 1877. Andrew Shuman, of the Chicago Evening Journal, was at the same time elected lieutenant governor. Great depression prevailed in financial circles at this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 1873, the effect of which had seemed to gather force from that time to the end of Governor Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative period was not calculated to call forth any new issues, but the governor's energies were at one time put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that had

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been begun in Pittsburg among the laboring classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring men for a short time refused to work or allow others to work. These disturbances were soon quelled, and the wheels of industry again set in motion.

Governor Cullom was reëlected in the fall of 1880, and inaugurated January 10th, 1881. John M. Hamilton was elected lieutenant governor at the same time. The governor announced in his message that the last dollar of the state debt had been paid or provided for. The only amounts not paid were $23,000 due, upon which interest had stopped, and which had never been presented for collection and supposed to have been lost, and about $950,000 due from the state to the school fund, and which cannot be paid, as that fund only requires the interest on the amount. As the state annually collects for the school fund and pays out to the counties $1,000,000, it is simply a legal fiction to call this a debt.

March 4th, 1883, the term of David Davis as senator from Illinois expired, and Governor Cullom was chosen to fill his place. This promoted Lieutenant Governor John M. Hamilton to the position made vacant by the resignation of Governor Cullom, and he is the present governor of Illinois.

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Chapter VII — State Government of Illinois.

BY AARON W. KELLOG.

Blackstone defines law as "a rule of action"; civil law as a rule of civil action, prescribing what is right and forbidding what is wrong.

The civil government of the state is established by the will of the people — by which word is meant male citizen of legal age — as expressed in a written constitution, voted for directly by the people, and in laws passed in conformity to that constitution by a general assembly, composed of two houses, the senate and the house of representatives, elected by the people from fifty-one separate districts.

All laws to be valid must be passed by both houses in the way prescribed by the constitution, must be in accordance with its requirements, and not repugnant to the laws and constitution of the United States.

The powers of government of this state, like all others in civilized countries, are divided into three distinct departments, legislative, executive, and judicial, no one of which can interfere with either of the others.

THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.

Of Election. — The powers and duties of the legislative department are wholly defined in the state constitution; restrictions upon its powers are provided both in the state and federal constitutions.

Elections of members of the general assembly occur biennially, on the years of even date, on Tuesday next after the

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first Monday of November. At each of these elections all the members of the house are elected, three from each district, and as nearly as possible one-half of the senators. The districts are reformed every ten years, on the year following the year of the federal census, and must be formed of contiguous territory, and, as nearly as may be, without dividing counties (except where a county is large enough for more than one district) of equal population. The number of districts cannot be increased or diminished.

Members of the house are elected on what is called the "cumulative plan," a plan by which the political party which is in the minority in any district may elect one of the three representatives by concentrating their force, and hence is frequently called the "minority plan." This plan permits any voter to cast three votes for representative. He may cast all for one candidate, two for one and one for another, one for each of three, or one and a half votes for each of two candidates. No other state in the Union has this cumulative plan of voting. In all elections the candidate receiving the highest number of votes is elected.

Powers and Duties. — All laws passed by the general assembly must have been read in full on three separate days in each house, printed, and have received the affirmative votes of a majority of those elected to each house — that is, twenty-six in the senate and seventy-seven in the house, and the names of those voting must be entered on the journal. In addition to these constitutional provisions, each house adopts certain rules, which may be, and often are, suspended by a two-thirds vote. These rules provide, among other things, that bills shall be referred to the standing committees of the house, where they are discussed, and amendments suggested and prepared, but no committee can do more than recommend action. It is also the duty, specifically, of the general assembly to appropriate money to carry on the state government, pass laws to provide a system of free schools, to regulate the charges of railroads,

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to protect producers and shippers of grain, for inspection of grain, to raise revenue, to fix fees and salaries of officers, to provide for county and township organizations, and make certain changes in the judicial system of the state.

Limitations and Restrictions. — The theory of the legislative power is, and we derived it from the mother country, which has no written formal constitution, that a legislature may do anything not physically impossible. To obviate the difficulties which would grow out of the use of absolute power, all the states of the Union have restricted legislative power. Illinois stands in advance of all other states in the number of such limitations. The most important of these, next to those established by the "bill of rights," common to all written constitutions — no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law, shall enjoy religious liberty, liberty of the press, trial by jury, may bear arms, may give bail when accused of all crimes except murder in the first degree, to freely assemble, petition, etc. — are: that all legislation shall be general, no special or local laws shall be passed; that lotteries or gift enterprises shall not be authorized; that no bill shall contain but one subject, and that shall be expressed in its title; no existing law shall be altered or amended by reference to its title, but the section amended must appear in the bill; that the canal shall not be sold or leased, nor more than three and a half million dollars expended on the state house without a vote of the people; that counties and other localities shall not be authorized to vote aid to railroads or other enterprises, or exempt any property from taxation; that no debt shall be authorized beyond 5 per cent. of the assessed valuation of the real and personal property of any county, city, town or district; that the general assembly shall not increase its own pay, or that of any officer of the state or county, and that it shall not assume the debt of any county.

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

The executive department enforces and executes the will of

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the people as expressed in their constitution and laws, subject to such interpretation as the judiciary may give.

How Constituted. — The execution of the laws is placed in the hands of a governor, secretary of state, treasurer, attorney general, auditor of public accounts, superintendent of public instruction, and state board of equalization of assessments, elected by the people, all for four years except the treasurer, who holds his office for two years and cannot be his own successor, and in several boards of commissioners and trustees appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate.

The "boards," which are all established by law, and are mere assistants of the governor in performing specific acts of duty and authority, are: Railroad and warehouse commissioners, three members; commissioners of state charities, five members; health, seven members; education, fifteen members; penitentiary commissioners, three members; canal commissioners, three members; fish commissioners, three members; pharmacy, five members; and boards of trustees for each state institution, three members. The state board of agriculture, twenty-one members, which belongs to the executive branch, is elected by delegates selected by county and union agricultural societies, as prescribed by law.

Duties. — The Governor is charged with seeing that the laws are faithfully executed; he must approve all bills before they become laws; appoint officers where no provision is made for their election, and, through the various boards of commissioners and trustees, enforce laws and regulations in the various branches of the state government. He may remove officers for dereliction of duty; must approve of accounts other than regular salaries; is commander-in-chief of the militia, and commissions all officers.

The Lieutenant Governor presides over the senate, but cannot vote except in case of a tie, and acts as governor in the absence from the state of that officer, or during his temporary inability to act, and become governor for the balance of the term of

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office in case of resignation, death, or removal from office of the governor. From the reports made to him by all other state officers, commissioners and trustees, all of which are printed, we derive most of the information which we have of the affairs of the state, its expenses, and what the money is expended for.

The Auditor of Public Accounts stands between the people and the laws. No money can be drawn from the treasury but upon his warrant, and his duty is to see that the money has been appropriated by laws properly passed, and all accounts therefor properly certified and approved before he draws his warrant. He has also, by virtue of his office, charge of the insurance department of the state. To him all companies report, and receive from him authority to do business in the state.

The Secretary of State keeps all the records. He must keep and preserve the journals of the general assembly, a roll of all laws passed, a register of all official acts of the governor, keep the great seal of state, attest all proclamations and commissions of the governor, certify to all copies of laws, issue all certificates of incorporation, and take charge of and preserve all the property of the state at Springfield.

The Treasurer keeps the public funds and all moneys directed by law to be placed in his custody; he receives and pays out money only on the order of the auditor of public accounts.

The Attorney General is the law officer of the state. He consults and advises state, county, and other officials on law points connected with their official duties, appears as counsel for the state in any courts, state or federal. He may attend at the trial of any person charged with crime, and direct the prosecution, and give opinion in writing to either branch of the general assembly, or its standing committees, when called for.

The Superintendent of Public Instruction has charge of the educational interests of the state, gives counsel and advice to county and city superintendents, and works to elevate the standard of education and the qualification of teachers.

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The State Board of Equalization equalizes the assessments of real and personal property as made by the different counties, and assesses the capital stock of corporations, the tracks and rolling stock of railroads, and sends to each county clerk the result of their labors. The auditor is ex-officio the chairman of the board.

THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

The Judicial Power of the state is vested by the constitution in one supreme court, seven judges; four appellate courts, three judges each; circuit courts, a superior court of Cook county, a few city courts established by special acts previous to the adoption of the present constitution and retained by its provisions, probate courts in counties of one hundred thousand or more inhabitants, county courts, which are also courts of probate in all counties of less inhabitants than necessary to entitle them to probate courts, and justices of the peace. Every court except the latter has a clerk for the keeping of its records. The general duties of courts are to hear and determine issues between citizens, to try persons accused of crime, to construe the laws passed by the legislature, decide as to their constitutionality, and of probate courts to settle the estates of deceased persons and exercise a control over the property of minors. In the former cases mentioned, juries of the people, except explicitly waived by the parties, must hear the evidence, under direction of the court, and decide the matter. In construing and deciding the constitutionality of laws no jury is had. All laws are supposed to be constitutional until otherwise decided.

Tenure of Office. — Judges, clerks, prosecuting attorneys and justices of the peace are elected by the people; supreme judges for nine years, their clerks for six years, circuit judges for six years, and all other officers for four years, except the justices of the peace in Cook county, who are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, upon the recommendation of the judges of that county.

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County Officers. — In addition to the officers mentioned, there are elected in each county, by the people, a sheriff, treasurer, county superintendent of schools, coroner, surveyor, and county attorney, whose duties are readily understood. The county clerk is ex-officio clerk of the county court. The clerk of the circuit court is ex-officio recorder of deeds and mortgages, except in counties of sixty thousand inhabitants, in which counties a recorder is elected. In counties which have adopted "township organization," the county affairs are managed by a board of supervisors, elected annually, but in townships of more than four thousand inhabitants additional ones, or assistant supervisors, are elected, according to population. The affairs of Cook county are managed by a board of fifteen commissioners, a portion of whom are elected each year; but, as a part of the old system of township organization, township officers are elected annually in that county, including the three townships which make up the city of Chicago. In counties which have not adopted "township organization," the affairs are conducted by a board of county commissioners, consisting of three members. In New England the township was the unit of political power. This principle has spread west, like other New England institutions, and has become the rule in the northern portion of this state.

Township Officers. — In counties under township organization there are elected each year, besides officers heretofore named, a town clerk, assessor, collector, highway commissioner, and every four years justices of the peace and constables, who, although elected in and by the voters of townships, have county jurisdiction.

City Officers, etc. — All cities which are under the general incorporation act elect a mayor, clerk, attorney, treasurer, and not less than six aldermen for two years. The mayor appoints the other officers. Cities which are under old special charters elect such officers as their particular charters provide for. Villages elect a board of trustees each year. Townships elect

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three school trustees to care for their school funds, and school districts elect three directors, or six members of boards of education. It would seem that we have no lack of elections and officials. By the laws of Illinois, women are eligible to any school office.

CONCLUSION.

The preparation of these pages has been a labor of love by one inspired by unbounded admiration for a state great in all those things which awaken esteem and patriotic pride. We have a state great in area, of incomparable richness of soil, the productive capacity of which we have not yet fully tested. There is not on the face of the globe another tract of equal size, of equal productive capacity. It has nearly six hundred miles of navigable water boundary. Its extreme length from north to south gives it a variety of climate enjoyed by few other states in the Union. It is underlaid with coal sufficient to give it manufacturing power for millions who are to make it their home. Its progressive strides from a distant border to the position of a central state; from the seat of Indian trade in trinkets and furs to a great commercial center; from a territory to the foremost agricultural state in the Union, has been witnessed by many of her citizens who are still actively engaged in the persuits of every day life. Such is the condition of Illinois in 1883.

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CHAPTER VIII — Commercial History of Illinois.

No nation or state ever rose high in the scale of civilization whose commercial relations with the outside world were limited, and it may with truth be said that nations rise in wealth and grandeur almost in proportion as they barter, buy and sell with other nations or states.

The progress of Illinois in this direction has been marked by many a change in the varied history of the country. Buffalo hides were the first articles of merchandise ever shipped from the Illinois country, and the export of these began about 1720. They were sent down the Mississippi river to New Orleans, which had then just been laid out as a French village. A few years later wheat, flour, and other agricultural productions followed in the same channel. The French fur traders came into Northern Illinois as early as the winter of 1674-5, and bought furs of the Indians for the Canada trade, but this was not properly an export trade by white men, for these traders were employed by Canadian companies to do this work.

Shortly after the English took possession of Illinois in 1765, the British board of trade took the subject under consideration of turning the trade of their French subjects here away from the French of New Orleans to the lakes and the St. Lawrence river, but nothing was ever done to accomplish such a result.

Spain purchased Louisiana of France in 1762, which country then included the territory west of the Mississippi river and

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New Orleans on its east bank. Shortly after the peace of Paris, in 1783, Spain closed the navigation of the Mississippi river against the commerce of the west, which cut off her only available channel of communication with the sea, for the whole of Northern Illinois was then a desolate wild, and the shores of Lake Michigan could not be reached by the French of Illinois except by a long overland route across the prairies, over which neither roads had been built, nor had streams been bridged.

In 1795 Spain agreed by treaty, negotiated October 27th by Thomas Pinkney on the part of the United States, to yield to the latter power the free navigation of the Mississippi,but her procrastinating policy in relinquishing her forts on the banks of this stream, at Natchez and other places, delayed its fulfillment till the Spanish government retroceded Louisiana to the French in 1800, by the secret treaty of St. Ildefonso. This treaty was not published to the nations till two years later, the next year after which Louisiana was purchased of the French by the United States, the treaty for which was ratified by congress on the 21st of October, 1803.

From this time onward till the water craft of the lakes had reached Chicago as common carriers, which was in about 1835, the export trade of Illinois went to New Orleans without hindrance, and even from this latter date (1835) to the

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era of railroads, the Mississippi river was a more important channel of trade to the State of Illinois than the lakes. Meantime the new motive power, destined to transcend both of the original channels of trade, was slowly and surely approaching the state from the Atlantic coast across the intervening country, studding its broad plains with towns in its course, and multiplying its wealth.

The legislature of Illinois was composed of men of ambitious purposes from the first, and this spirit seemed to gather strength as other states to the eastward set the example of building canals, and particularly railroads.

The first official act here in this direction took place January 28th, 1831, at which time an act was passed by the general assembly for the survey of a route for a canal or railroad in St. Clair county.Other plans for public transportation by means of canals, slack water navigation and railroads, were subsequently chartered by the state, some of which were premature, while others showed the wisdom and forecast of their architects. Of the latter sort the Galena & Chicago Union and the Illinois Central railroads were examples — the first as the pioneer east and west line through the state, and the last as the pioneer north and south line from the southern extremity of the state to its great commercial emporium on the lakes and to its northwestern tangent.

The Galena & Chicago Union railway company was incorporated by an act of the legislature January 16th, 1836. The first ten miles of the road was finished from Chicago to Harlem December 30th, 1848. The road was completed to the Mississippi river at Fulton December 10th, 1855. It was the first railroad that turned a locomotive wheel in the city of Chicago, and the first built in the state to connect the commerce of the Mississippi to that of the lakes — the dream of a generation now fulfilled. In October, 1865, this road was

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consolidated with the Chicago & North-Western railway, but its original name will live in history, together with the faith which its builders had in Chicago when they began the work with but small means and slender patronage.

The Illinois Central road was one that had been planned in the minds of the ablest men in Illinois as early as 1835. The canal connecting the lakes with the Illinois river was the original thought not only of Illinois statesmen, but its conception was the admiration of the financiers throughout the north. As soon as provision had been made which should give this enterprise an assurance of success, the next thing to be done was to extend the means of transportation from the southern terminus of the canal at La Salle to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. On the 18th of January, 1836, the legislature took the business in hand and chartered a road for this purpose, but this and other attempts in the same direction were failures till January 14th, 1851, at which time the present Illinois Central railroad was incorporated. It was finished to Dunleith June 12th, 1855, and to Chicago September 26th, 1856. Ere this time other trunk lines were traversing the state, and many more were under consideration.

The Michigan Southern and Central roads were completed from the east to Chicago, the first in February and the last in May, 1852, which two were the great exemplary models after which so many rivals for eastern connections with Chicago have been built. The success which these first attempts achieved established a basis on which capital has ever since sought investment in Illinois, and established commercial relations between every section of this state and the world at large.

Lake Michigan extends her waters over 400 miles south of the northern limit of the United States, which is on the 49th parallel. The space thus crossed lies between the parallels of 41° 30' and 49°, and on this broad belt between the Atlantic

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and the Pacific chiefly lie the cities and the channels of travel between the east and the weSt. All these are forced around the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, mostly through Chicago, and thence across the state. Below Illinois there are no great trunk lines leading east and west, but from its southern portions the railroads take southwesterly, southern, and southeasterly directions, as from a common commercial centre of the United States. Such the physical forces of nature have made Illinois, and the lines of travel only act as auxiliaries to these forces.

No attempt will here be made to even approximate the amount of wealth which has come to the state or grown up in its midst through the introduction of railroads. This has been shared by the land owners and the railroad companies. The laws of the state have regulated the prices for carrying passengers on the railroads, and made some general restrictions as to the charges on freight, but a higher law than man can make has set limits to freight charges in the lakes and rivers that inviron the state. Added to these, the Illinois and Michigan canal, and the Hennepin canal when finished, will set at defiance any attempt on the part of the railroad companies to demand unjust charges should they be unwise enough to pursue such a suicidal policy.

That the present financial condition of Illinois is one of unexampled prosperity must be apparent to every observer. The state is free of debt, and agriculture, the great interest of the state, is carried on by perfected machinery with surer rewards than ordinary mercantile investments in large cities, and the farmer stands as high in the social scale as the legislator or the professional citizen, nor is any class excluded from his society if clothed with the dignity of courtesy and intelligence, and to abate these terms as requisite to good standing in society would be dangerous to the welfare of the rising generation.

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CHAPTER IX — Chicago.

The city of Chicago and its immediate environs contains about one-fifth of the population of the whole state. It represents the interests not only of the entire state, but to a certain extent those of the norther portions of the United States which are brought into commercial relations with her, and also the interest of the entire valley of the Mississippi, and Texas to a similar extent. Her name is older than her history. It was probably first applied to the place as the "Chicagou portage." There was but little attraction to bring the native population here to take up more than a transient residence, consequently it never became the seat of a large Indian village.

In 1803, shortly after the purchase of Louisiana, the United States government formed the design of building a fort on the shores of Lake Michigan, and sent commissioners to select a site for the purpose. They selected the mouth of the St. Joseph river for the locality of it, but the Ottawas and Chippewas refused them the ground, and they next proceeded to the Chicago river, on the opposite side of the lake. Six miles square of land at the mouth of this river had been ceded to the United States by the Indians at the treaty of Greenville in 1795, and on this spot the fort was built. It was finished in 1804 and named Fort Dearborn.

During the war of 1812 it was evacuated by its garrison on the 15th of May. A slaughter of the troops immediately ensued ere they had retreated more than two miles on their way to Fort Wayne, their point of destination.

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The fort was rebuilt in 1816, and Chicago has ever since that time been a permanent residence of American pioneers and settlers. The next year, 1817, Messrs. Conant and Mack, fur traders at Detroit, established a branch at Chicago under the superintendence of John Crafts.

Soon after this the American Fur Company bought out the establishment, and employed Mr. Crafts in their service. This was the pioneer business house of Chicago, and its trade was Indian blankets and trinkets in exchange for furs.

The Pottowattomies were then the all-prevailing power in Northern Illinois, there being no white settlers in the state north of Peoria except at Chicago. Port Dearborn was always well garrisoned, and ever kept in readiness for an Indian outbreak should such a calamity occur.

In 1821 Chicago and its environs were surveyed in government sections.In 1829 Chicago was surveyed and platted into village lots, and a map of the town engraved in St. Louis the next year and published. August 10th, 1833, Chicago was incorporated as a village, and March 4th, 1837, was chartered as a city. Since that time the growth of the city has been more rapid than that of any other city in America, and, as far as known, than any other in the world. It now ranks as the third city in the United States in population, and sustains about the same grade as to business. The great modern event in its history is its fire of 1871, a description of which, by request, Mr. C. C. P. Holden, the president of the common council at the time of the fire, has kindly furnished the writer, as follows:

Rufus Blanchard, Wheaton, Illinois:

DEAR SIR. — In accordance with your request, I submit herewith a statement compiled from such data as I consider nearly reliable touching the losses of both personal and real (buildings) estate destroyed by the great fire of October 8th and 9th, 1871.

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The fire destroyed the very heart of our city, taking in its general course all government, state, county, and a large portion of the municipal buildings. In its devastating route it swept over 2,200 acres of soil, burning to destruction 15,768 buildings, 175 manufacturing establishments, 121 miles of stone and other sidewalks, and 73 miles of streets were embraced in the limits of the vast conflagration.

To enumerate the property destroyed by the fire would be an impossibility, but a tolerably close approximation of the losses can be furnished, and herewith I give you a statement as nearly correct as long research can make it.

The United States government lost all its buildings, including the custom house, and $2,130,000 in money. The city lost, in round numbers, more than $3,000,000; the county also, lost heavily. Then there were the losses of the great trunk line railways, the chamber of commerce and the board of trade, warehouses and elevators, banking corporations and private bankers and brokers, insurance corporations, newspaper offices and effects, hotels and restaurants, opera houses, theatres and other places of amusement, churches, schools and other places of learning, the manufactories of all kinds, the vast shipping interest, including vessels, canal boats, tugs and dredges, flour, grain and provisions, the brewers, distillers and dealers in wines and liquors, business blocks, stores and dwellings, dry goods, groceries, hardware, iron safes and other metals, coal and wood, clothing, drugs, hats, caps and furs, books, stationery and paper stock, boots and shoes, furniture and bedding, pianos, organs and other musical instruments and music, millinery, jewelry, leather and harness material, tailors' supplies, paints and oils, livery and livery stock, libraries and paintings, and artist supplies, and all other kinds of business not herein enumerated — a total of $187,927,000, made up as follows, to wit:
15,768 buildings (and in this number were the business blocks, custom house, court house, city hall, newspaper offices, railroad stations, depots and offices, hotels, churches, opera houses and theatres), and dwellings $49,239,000
Household goods, silverware, etc. 31,536,000
Personal effects, including jewelry and money 19,840,000
Flour, gain and provisions 5,262,000
Wholesale and retail business 46,645,000
Manufacturers and shipping 14,055,000
All other interest not herein enumerated, city losses outside of city hall, public libraries, records, and miscellaneous of every description 21,350,000
Grand total $187,297,000

Thus it will be seen that the total losses by the great fire of 1871 were $187,927,000. The total valuation of taxable property in the city of Chicago, as assessed for the municipal year, 1871, was $289,746,470. The assessment was made for that year on the basis of 50 per cent. of the true valuation of the property thus assessed. Hence the real value of all taxable

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property in the city for that year was $579,492,940, and thus was wiped out of Chicago's real wealth a little more than 32 per cent. of the same, which would be 185,487,740, leaving a margin of loss over and above this amount of $2,489,260. These great losses by fire, the like of which were never heard of before in this or any other country during the world's history, were partially met by 201 insurance companies, which companies had at risk in the burnt district the sum of $100,225,780, of which amount they paid, according to approximation, the sum of $50,178,925, leaving a net loss to the burned out property owners of $137,748,075. Sixty-eight insurance companies, with assets of $24,867,109, were compelled to go into liquidation through losses sustained by the fire. Among the products of our soil, and which are enumerated in the above item as destroyed, maybe mentioned 15,000 barrels of flour, 4,000 tierces of lard, 1,500,000 lbs. cut meats, 6,000 barrels of pork, 2,400 tons broom corn. Finally, it is safe to say that on that fatal day in the history of Chicago fully one-third of all her real wealth was destroyed by the conflagration. Not only this, but there were rendered homeless by that terrible calamity more than 94,000 souls, but sadder still is the fact, never to be forgotten, that 300 human lives were sacrificed to the flames of that ever to be remembered day.

Most respectfully,

CHARLES C. P. HOLDEN.
Chicago, Illinois, April 24th, 1883.

The total of contributions that promptly came to Chicago for the relief of the sufferers was $4,820,148.16. Of this amount $973,897.80 was from foreign countries. The rebuilding of the burnt district was a wonder of no less magnitude than the fire itself. The business portion of the city now presents not only the appearance of newness, but the buildings are of the most approved pattern of architecture and convenience. By the census of 1880 her population was 503,304, since which time there is evidence of increase in numbers in an equal ratio of that which has marked her growth since she was a village of two or three hundred persons in 1832.

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CHAPTER X — Indian Names in Illinois.

BY E. M. HAINES.

ALGONQUIN. — A town in Illinois. The name of one of the principal groups of North American Indians, given to them by the French. Its meaning is in some doubt. It is derived from the Algonquin language, and is said to mean people of the other side, or opposite shore.

ASHKUM. — Alg. — A town in Illinois; more and more. Thus Ashkum-ahkoose, he is getting worse (more sick). Ashkum Wabishkah, it is getting whiter.

APPANOOSE. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Name of an Indian chief of the Fox tribe. The grandchild.

CAYUGA (Gwe u-gweh) — Irq. — A town in Illinois, Mucky-land; from a tribe of Indians in New Tork of the Iroquois nation; they were called Gwe-u-gweh-o-no, "People of the Mucky land."

CHEBANSE — Aug. — A town in Illinois; Little Duck, from an Indian chief of that name.

CHEMUNG. — Irq. — A town in Illinois; from a river of that name in New York, signifying big horn, so named by the Indians from finding in the bed of the river a fossil elephant's tusk.

CHICAGO. — The word Chicago is understood to be an Indian word; at least it is derived from that source. What its precise meaning is, or whether it has any particular meaning at all in its present form as now applied, is a matter of considerable dispute among those who have given the subject attention.

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The word comes to us through, the early French explorers of the west as an Indian word, from the language of the Algonquin group. Whilst this group of the North American tribes had one general or generic language by which they were distinguished, each tribe had its dialect, differing more or less from that of the other tribes of the same group. The standard or parent language, however, since this people became known to the whites, was that spoken by the Ojibways (Chippeways), the most powerful and numerous of the various tribes of this group. Those who pretend to make any positive assertion as to the correct meaning of this word as an Indian word, seem to have confined their investigations on the subject to the Indian language as spoken by the Ojibways, without reference to other dialects, seeming to ignore the fact that it could come from any other source, whereupon they reach the conclusion, and so assert, that it means onion, garlic, leek, or skunk. So far as appears at this day, there seems to have been no special inquiry into the origin or meaning of this word until about the time of the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn in 1816. The year following that event Colonel Samuel A. Starrow visited this place, and in a letter to General Jacob Brown, of the United States army, refers to the river here as "the River Chicago (or in the English — wild onion river)." Mr. Schoolcraft, the Indian historian, in his "Narrative of an Expedition to the Sources of the Mississippi River in 1820," in giving an account of visiting Chicago on the return of said expedition, speaking of the Chicago river, says: "Its banks consist of a black arenaceous fertile soil, which is stated to produce abundantly, in its season, the wild species of cepa or leek. This circumstance has led the natives to name it the place of the wild leek. Such is the origin of the term Chicago, which is a derivative by elision and French annotation from the work chi-kauy-ong. Kaug is the Algonquin name for the hystrix or porcupine. It takes the prefix, chi, when applied to the mustelaputorius (pole-cat). The particle, chi,

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is the common prefix of nouns to denote greatness in any natural object, but it is employed as here to mean the increase or excess, as acridness or pungency in quality. The penultimate ong denotes locality. The putorious is so named from this plant." Bishop Baraga, in an appendix to his Ojibway dictionary, says the word Chicago is a word in the Cree dialect, a tribe of the Algonquin group called also Knistenos. "From Chicag or Sikag, a skunk, a kind of wildcat, which, at the local term, makes Chicagok." In his dictionary mentioned he defines an onion in the Ojibway dialect as kitchijigagmanj (French orthography), English orthography, kit-che-zhig-a-gam-anzh. The definition of onion by Rev. Edward F. Wilson in his dictionary of the Ojibway language is keche-she-gaug-uh-wunzh. He defines skunk as zhe gaug. John Tanner, for thirty years a captive among the Ojibways, and many years United States Indian interpreter, in a "Catalogue of Plants and Animals found in the country of the Ojibways, with English names." appended to the narrative of his captivity, defines skunk as she-gahg. He defines onion as she-gau-ga-winzhe (skunk-weed). In a note therto by Dr. James, editor of Tanner's narrative, it is added: "From shih-gau-ga-winzhe, this word in the singular number, some derive the name Chicago." The Indians it seems, at least the Ojibways, called the onion, garlic, and other weeds of like odor by a name which signified skunk-weed, and in the Ojibway language the words used so express it. It is noticed that all who contend that the word Chicago, as applied to the river and city of that name, means skunk, onion or the like, derive their convictions on the subject from one or more of the authorities which are before cited, or from some one familiar with the Ojibway language, who forms his convictions to the same effect from the mere coincidence of sounds. History is so unsatisfactory and varied in regard to this word, that we are left at this day to determine its meaning solely upon the basis of similarity of sounds. For there seems to be no fact or

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incident narrated or mentioned in history that leads with any degree of certainty either to the original meaning of this word as intended, or to the dialect from which it is derived. And it is to be confessed that upon the theory aforesaid, conceding that the word comes from the Ojibway language or dialect, no one is prepared to dispute the assertion so generally made that the word is derived from skunk. The word skunk being in the Indian tongue simply she-kaug. In order to make Chi-cag-o, the theory adopted is that ong, an Ojibway local termination is added, which makes Chi-cag-ong, meaning at the skunk, the sound of ng being dropped in common speech, leaving the word in the form now used. Whilst this is not inconsistent in practice in dealing with Indian names, there is another theory, it is suggested, which may be adopted in this connection that would seem to be equally consistent. The word Chi-ca-go, without adding ng, would be a fair Ojibway expression. The sound of o added would denote the genitive, and might be rendered thus, him of the skunk, in which case it would probably be the name of an individual, and it is stated that this word is the name not only of some one Indian chief, but the name also of a line of chiefs during several generations. It is to be remarked, however, that there are some facts in history in regard to this word not in harmony with the definition generally contended for, as before stated. The word is first mentioned in early western history by Hennepin, in his account of La Salle's expedition which he accompanied, chapter 34 (London edition, 1699), the heading of which is as follows: "An account of the building of a new fort on the river of the Illinois, named by the savages Che-cau-gou, and by us fort Crevecceur." This was in January, 1680. This fort was at or near the place where Peoria in this state now stands. We must believe that the Indian word mentioned, given by the savages as their name for this fort, could not in this connection mean skunk nor skunk-weed. The definition of the French word mentioned would

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mean "broken heart." Hennepin remarks that the many difficulties they labored under had almost broken their hearts. May we not therefore suppose that the Indian word thus applied was intended to be of similar import? The name Che-ka-gou thereafter appears on a map by Franqueliri in 1684, applied to a river putting into the Des Plaines from the east at a point just above the Kankakee river, while at the head of Lake Michigan on this map is the work Checago umeinan. At a latter date what is now called the Desplaines river was called by the early French explorers the river Chekagou. This word as a local name did not, as would appear, reach the river at present so named, nor the point where Chicago now is, until at least thirty years after the time of Hennepin, as before mentioned, and of the circumstances under which this word was lastly so applied, from what dialect it came, or what its intended meaning was, if any, in its changed application, no account whatever is transmitted to us. The most that can be said of the word with any degree of certainty is that it is of Indian origin, and comes from some dialect of the Algonquin group, so called. It must be noted, however, that in the Ojibway dialect this word, or that which is essentially the same, is not confined in its meaning to that contended for, as before mentioned. The word may mean also in that language to forbear, or avoid, from kah-go, forbear, and che, a prefix answering to our preposition to, or it may mean something great, from ka-go, something, and ohi, from git-che, great. Besides several other words or expressions which may be found in this dialect of the same sound, yet of different meanings, Che-ca-gua was the name of a noted Sac chief, and means, in that dialect, he that stands by the tree In the Pottawattomie dialect the word choe-ca-go, without addition or abridgement, means destitute. Now, if this word was applied to the river which at present bears this name from the local circumstance as claimed, that of the abundance of skunk-weed upon its banks, it would seem to follow that it must have been so given

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by the tribe who then inhabited or dwelt in the vicinity. At the time this word first appeared in this locality, the country about was inhabited, we are informed, by the tribe of Miamis in whose dialect the word for skunk or pole-cat was se-kaw-kwaw. The Miamis, it seems, were succeeded by the Potta-wattomies. We have no account from any source that the Ojibway nation, from whose dialect the attempt is made to define the meaning of this word, ever inhabited this part of the country. Mr. Hurlbut, in his book of Chicago Antiquities, refers to an article in Potter's American Monthly, wherein it is stated that in early days this place was called "Tuck Chicago," and in which it is said that "Tuck, in the Indian dialect means wood or timber;" that the word Chicago means "gone, absent, or without;" that the words Tuck Chicago signified the waste prairie, or, literally translated, wood gone. The Indian dialect referred to, it is understood, has reference to that of the Pottawattomies. It is true that there was originally considerable tree growth along the river, particularly on the north side, at what we now call Chicago, but it was in the main a naked prairie, which would make the name "Tuck Chicago" (wood gone) in the Pottawattomie dialect worthy of consideration among the various other speculations cited from their respective authorities. It will be observed that each of the theories adduced in this article has its authority, and from them all the antiquarian may form his opinion as to the origin of the name of the city in question.

GENESEO (Gen-nis-he-yo) — Irq. — A town in Illinois. Beautiful Valley. The name of a river in New York, so named by the Iroquois from the beautiful valley this river passes through.

IROQUOIS. — The name of a river and county in Illinois. The word is derived from the name given by the French to the Five Nations of Indians about Lake Ontario. The first negotiations of the French in settling the country along the River St. Lawrence were with the natives in the vicinity

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known as the Five Nations and the Hurons or Wyandottes, so called, all speaking the same generic language. It was noticed that these tribes in their councils always closed their speeches with the word or exclamation "Hiro!" like dixi of the Latin. They also used on public or other occasions, when circumstances seemed to demand it, an exclamation or word, "Kouai," as an expression of warning, something in the sense we would use the word "Beware!" The frequent use of these words or exclamations, from the circumstances attending, seemed to have attracted the special attention of the French, so that in speaking of them, or in giving them a designation, they spoke of them as the Hiro-Kouai, or, in the French orthography, Hiro-Quois, which in time passed into the present word, Iroquois, by simply dropping the sound of H in common speech.

ILLINOIS. — From the Algonquin word inini, or illini, "man," and French adjective termination ois. The French substituted I for n. From tradition, it was intended to mean or have reference to a perfect man, as distinguished from the Iroquois nation, who were considered by the western tribes as beasts. Marquette, in descending the Mississippi, touched on the west bank of that river at a place near the mouth of the Des Moines, where he found marks of inhabitants, which he pursued westward a few miles, when he arrived at an Indian visage, where he was received with demonstrations of great friendship. He communicated with the inhabitants, it would appear, in the Algonquin language, but as their dialect differed from that of any of the tribes he had before met with, he asked the chief who received him who they were. He answered in the Algonquin language, "We are men" as distinguished from the Iroquois, whom they looked upon as beasts in consequence of their cruel conduct in their invasions upon the western tribes. Hence the term Inini, "man," or as the French rendered it, Illini. Thereafter the tribes of this vicinity became known among the French as Illinese or Illinois.

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KEWANEE. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Prairie hen.

KICKAPOO. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. The name of one of the Algonquin tribes of the west, jestingly applied by others of the same stock. From Negik-abosan otter's apparitionghost of an otter.

KISHWAUKE. — Alg. — A river in Illinois. Place of sycamore trees.

MOCCASIN. — Alg — A town in Illinois. A shoe.

MANITO. Alg. — A town in Illinois. Spirit. By the early French travelers, Manitou.

MASCOUTAH. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. From mascoda, "prairie."

MOAWEQUA. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Weeping woman; she that weeps.

MOKENA (Mok-e-na) — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Turtle.

NEOGA. — Irq. — A town in Illinois. Place of the Great Spirit.

NOKOMIS. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Grandmother.

NUNDA. — Irq. — A town in Illinois. Hills.

OSAGE. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Miami dialect. The Neutral. The name of a tribe of Indians.

OQUAKA. — Alg. — Sac dialect. A town in Illinois. Yellowearth.

OSWEGO (O-Sweh-go) — Irq. — A town in Illinois. Flowing out. This name was given by the Iroquois to the place at the mouth of the river, since called by that name, in the state of New York.

OTTAWA. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Trader. Name of a tribe of Indians whom the French designated as the traders.

PEOTONE (Pe-tone) — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Bring — bring here.

SOMONAUK (Es-sem-in-auk) — Alg. — A town in Illinois. Paw Paw tree.

TONICA. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. A place inhabited.

TUSCOLA. — Apl. — A town in Illinois. A level plain.

WAPELLA. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. From an Indian chief of the Fox tribe. He who is painted white.

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WAUKEGAN (Wau-ki-e-gan) — Alg. — A town in Illinois. A house, or fort. The place where this town is situated was originally called Little Fort. It seems to have been a French trading post of minor importance — probably established about the year 1720, or at some time in the early part of that century. The occasion of selecting this point as a post seems to have been two-fold. It was in the vicinity of excellent hunting and trapping grounds, especially the latter, and was found to be the nearest point of any for reaching the Desplaines river from Lake Michigan, where in a good stage of water a short, easy portage could be made on the route to the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, saving about forty miles of lake coast, necessary in going by way of Chicago. It was continued as a French post until probably about 1760. After the English succeeded to the country the point became known as The Little Fort, and the town subsequently built up here took that name. Judge Blodgett, now of the United States Court, becoming a resident of the place, and having a fancy for Indian names, suggested that the name of Little Fort be changed by substituting an Indian name signifying the same thing. The diminutive of nouns in the Algonquin language is formed by adding the syllable anse, so that Little Fort in that language would be Wau-ki-e-ganse; but for the purposes of euphony the name adopted was Waukegan, which would signify simply Fort or House. Although the pronunciation is not precisely the same as the Indian word intended, yet it is nearer to that intended than the so-called Indian names generally are. The Indians designated a fort or dwelling of the white man by the same name. The original dwellings of the whites among them were buildings for trading posts, built in a style for protection, and were called forts by the French.

WAUCONDA. — Dak. — A town in Illinois. The Good Spirit.

WINETKA. — Alg. — A town in Illinois. A beautiful place.

WYANET. — Alg. — town in Illinois. Beautiful.

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Chapter XI — Indian Tribes of Illinois.

TAKEN FROM HISTORIC NOTES OF THE NORTHWEST
BY H. W. BECKWITH.

The Miamis, Illinois, Winnebagos, Sacs and Foxes, Kickapoos, Pottawattomies, and Shawneese, are the names of the native tribes who have occupied the soil of Illinois within the historic period of the state.

The Winnebagos were of the Sioux stock; all the others were of the Algonquin, their language being similar. The Iroquois were essentially different in their language as well as in their public policy, being more aggressive and less susceptible to religious teaching, but perhaps more progressive in. civilization. Between them and the tribes of Illinois there was from the first an enmity, which became augmented by the rival interests of the French of Canada and the English colonists along the Hudson river. The Iroquois, who held all the territory between the Hudson river and Lake Erie, were important factors in the hands of the English wherewith to secure the western fur trade, while the French of Canada had advanced up the lakes to secure not only the fur trade, but the country itself as a province of France.

The Sioux or Dakotas west of the Mississippi were another classification of tribes, and may be set down as the most heroic of all, they never having been conquered on the field of battle by either other native tribes or even by the armies of the United States, as the fate of Custer's army in 1879 gives melancholy experience.

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The Illinois Indians were composed of five subdivisions: Kaskaskias, Cahokias, Tamaroas, Peorias and Metchigamis, the last being a foreign tribe from west of the Mississippi river, who having been reduced to small numbers by wars with

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their neighbors, abandoned their former hunting grounds and became incorporated with the Illinois. The first historical mention of the Illinois is found in the "Jesuit Relations for the year 1670-1," prepared by Father Claude Dablon, from the letters of priests stationed at La Pointe, Lake Superior, where the French had a trading poSt. Says the Father: "The first who came to the Pointe of the Holy Ghost (meaning the Mission) for commerce called themselves Illinois." In the "Jesuit Relations," and in the writings of other French authors, the name Illinois is variously spelled as "Illi-mouek," "Ill-i-no-u-es," "Ill-i-ne-wek," "Allini-wek," and "Lin-i-wek." The terminations oues, wek, ois, and ouek were almost identical in pronunciation. Lewis Evans, the great geographer in colonial days, spelled the name Will-i-nis. Major Thomas Forsyth, for many years trader and Indian agent in the Illinois Territory, and stationed at the French village of Peoria, says the "Illinois confederation call themselves Linni-wek, and by others they were called Min-ne-way." Both Marquette and Hennepin spelled the name Illinois as we do now.

The Illinois confederation claimed the country bounded on the east by the ridge that divides the waters flowing into the Illinois from those flowing into the Wabash, between the headwaters of Saline creek and a point as far north on the Illinois as the Desplaines, reaching northward to the debatable ground between themselves, the Winnebagos, the Sacs and Foxes, and the Kickapoos, and extending westward of the Mississippi. Their favorite and most populous villages were upon the Illinois, the Desplaines and the Kankakee, but the Sioux (Da-ko-ta) pressed them from the west, the Sacs and Foxes and Kickapoos, confederates, encroached upon their territory from the north, while war parties of the Iroquois, coming from the east, rapidly decimated their numbers. These destructive raids were doing their fatal work, and the power of the Illinois was waning when the French first came in contact with them.

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The building of Fort St. Louis upon the heights of Starved Pock by La Salle, in 1682, gave confidence to the Illinois and their scattered remnants who had again returned to their favorite village. They were followed by bands of Weas, Pi-an-ke-shas, and Mi-am-ies, near kinsmen of the Illinois, and by the Shawnees and other tribes of remoter affinity, and soon a cordon of populous towns arose about the fort. The military forces of these villages at the colony of La Salle, in 1684, was estimated at 3,680 fighting men, the Illinois furnishing more than one-third of this number. Thus were the Iroquois barred out of the country of the Illinois, who, for a season, enjoyed a respite from their old enemies. The abandonment of Fort St. Louis as a military post, in 1702, was followed by a dispersion of the tribes and fragments of tribes, except at the Illinois village, where a straggling population retained possession. The Kaskaskias learning, in the year 1700, that France was making a military establishment and colony near the mouth of the Mississippi, started thither. They were intercepted on the way, and persuaded to halt above the mouth of the Ohio, and soon thereafter made themselves a permanent home on the banks of a stream which since then has borne their name, the Kaskaskia.

The Iroquois came no more, having war enough on their hands nearer home, but the Illinois were constantly harrassed by other enemies, the Sacs and Foxes, the Kickapoos, and the Pottawattomies. Their villages at Starved Rock and at Peoria Lake were besieged by the Foxes in 1722, and a detachment of 100 men, commanded by Chevalier d'Artaguiette and Sieur de Tisné, was sent from Fort Chartres to their assistance. The Foxes having lost more than a hundred of their men, abandoned the siege before the reinforcements arrived. "This success (says Charlevoix, the great French historian) did not, however, prevent the Illinois, although they had lost only twenty men, with some children, from leaving the Rock and Pim-i-toey (Peoria Lake), where they were kept in constant

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alarm, and proceeding to unite with those of their brethern (the Kaskaskias) who had settled upon the Mississippi. This was a stroke of grace for most of them, the small number of missionaries preventing their supplying so many towns scattered far apart; but, on the other side, as there was nothing to check the raids of the Foxes along the Illinois river, communication between Louisiana and New France (Canada) became much less practicable."

The next fifteen years show a further decline in their numbers. In an enumeration of the Indian tribes connected with the government of Canada, prepared in the year 1736, the name, location, and number of fighting men of the Illinois are set down as follows: "Mitchigamias, near Fort Chartres, 250; Kaskaskies, six leagues below, 100; Peorias, 50; the Cahokias and Tamarois, 200;" making a total of 600. The killing of Pontiac, some thirty years later, at Cahokia, whither he had retired after the failure of his bold efforts to rescue the country from the British, was laid upon the Illinois, a charge which, whether true or false, hastened their destruction. In an official letter to the secretary of war, of date March 22, 1814, General Wm. H. Harrison says: "When I was first appointed governor of the Indiana Territory (May, 1800), these once powerful tribes were reduced to about 30 warriors, of whom 25 were Kaskaskias, 4 Peorias, and a single Mitchigamian. A furious war between them and the Sacs and Kickapoos reduced them to that miserable remnant which had taken refuge among the white people in the towns of Kaskaskia and St. Geniveve." Since 1800, by successive treaties, they ceded their lands to the United States, and were removed to reservations lying southwest of Kansas City, where, in 1872, they had dwindled to 40 persons, men, women and children, all told.

THE MIAMIS.

This tribe formerly lived beyond the Mississippi river, whence their progress eastwardly was through Wisconsin and

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Illinois, and around the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to Detroit, thence down the Detroit river and up the Maumee through Indiana into Ohio. That they originally sprang from the same stock as the Illinois is the opinion of the early writers on the subject, and General Harrison, even at his late historic date says: "Although the language, names and customs of the Kaskaskias make it sufficiently certain that they derive their origin from the same source with the Miamis, the connection had been dissolved before the French had penetrated to the Mississippi.

The Miami confederation was subdivided into four principal bands, since known under the name of Miamis, Eel-Rivers, Weas, and Piankeshaws. The Miamis proper have by different writers been called "Ou-mi-a-mi," "Ou-mi-am-wek," "Mau-mees," "Au-mi-am-i" (which has been contracted to "Au-mi" and to "O-mee"), and "Min-e-am-i." The Weas, whose name more properly is "We-we-hah," is called "8y-a-ta-nous," "Oui-at-a-nous," and "Ou-i-as" by the French, and in whose orthography the "8y" and "Ou" are equivalent in sound nearly to the letter of the English W. The British and colonial officers and traders spelled the word "Oui-ca-ta-non," "Way-ough-ta-nies," "Waw-i-ach-tens," and "We-hahs." The name Piankeshaws, in early accounts, figure as "Pou-an-ke-ki-as," "Pe-an-gui-chias," "Pi-an-gui-shaws," "Py-an-ke-shaws," and "Pi-an-qui-shaws." The Miami tribes were known to the Iroquois of New York as the Twigh-twees, a name generally used by the British as well as by the American colonists when referring to any of the Miami tribes.

In the year 1684, at La Salle's colony at Starved Rock, the Miamis had populous villages, where the Miamis proper counted 1,300, the Weas 500, and the Piankeshaw band 150. At a later day, 1718, the Weas had a village "at Chicago, but being afraid of the canoe people (the Chippeways and Pottawattomies), left it, and passing around the head of Lake Michigan to be nearer their brethren farther to the eaSt." Father

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Charlevoix, writing from this vicinity, in 1721, says: "Fifty years ago the Miamis (i.e., the Wea band) were settled on the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, in a place called Chicago, from the name of a small river which runs into the lake,

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the source of which is not far distant from that of the river of the Illinois (meaning the Desplaines, which is the name by which it was often called in French authorities)."

The country of the Miamis extended west to the watershed between the Illinois and Wabash rivers, which separated their possessions from those of their brethren, the Illinois. On the north were the Pottawattomies, who were slowly but persistently pushing their line southward through Wisconsin and around the west shore of Lake Michigan.

It was only the Piankeshaw band of the Miamis that occupied portions of Illinois subsequent to the dispersion of La Salle's colony about Starved Rock. The principal villages of the latter were upon the Vermilion river and at Vincennes, Ind., and its environs. Their territory extended eastward to the Ohio river and westward to the ridge that divides the waters flowing respectively into the Kaskaskia and the Wabash. They were found by French officers in populous towns upon the Vermilion as early as 1718; later they pushed the degenerating Illinois bands to the vicinity of Kaskaskia and neighboring villages, and hunted and dominated over the territory to the Mississippi, as high up, nearly, as the mouth of the Illinois.

THE POTTAWATTOMIES.

The first mention of this tribe is in the "Jesuit Relation " of 1639. They were then reported on the north bank of Lake Huron. Twenty-six years later they were reported on the west bank of Lake Michigan. In 1674 they were at Green Bay, and assisted Father Marquette on his way from the mission of St. Francis Xavier at that place to the "Chicagou" portage. Subsequently we find them in great force in the vicinity of Mackinaw, whence they made large portions of Michigan and also Wisconsin their hunting grounds. Later they took possession of the country around Chicago, and also the immense plains lying in Illinois west of the Wabash river. It was during this period that they made the attack on the troops

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who had evacuated Fort Dearborn in 1812, as told in fore-going pages. They were the last native tribe to take their departure from Illinois, lingering around Chicago till 1835 which time they were removed west by Colonel J. B. F.

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Russell, as per the provisions of a treaty held with them in Chicago September 26th, 1833. They are now in the Indian Territory, many of them being wealthy farmers. Their youth are educated at good schools, and are ambitious to rise in the world.

THE SACS AND FOXES.

According to Monette this tribe was early located on the Detroit river, whence they were driven to Green Bay. From the latter place they went to the Mississippi river and occupied the territory on both sides of it above the mouth of Rock river soon after the year 1700. In foregoing pages a brief sketch of their history has been given as a record of the Sauk war during Governor Reynolds' administration.

THE WINNEBAGOS AND SHAWNEES.

Both of these tribes have occupied small portions of Illinois for a few years. Their history is unimportant in connection with that of Illinois.

THE KICKAPOOS.

The records of this tribe run back to the first occupation of the St. Lawrence valley by the French, Champlain having come in contact with them on the banks of Lake Huron on his route of discovery. From that early date ever since they have been an untractable tribe, forming no lasting alliance with the French like many other tribes. They came to the Rock river prior to 1718, says Charlevoix, and in 1765 had occupied the large portions of the state shown on the map of the Indian tribes of the same date. In 1812 their hunting grounds had diminished but little in size, but had moved so as to occupy the extreme southeastern portions of the state. They ceded all their lands in Illinois to the United States by a treaty held at Edwardsville in 1819. Many of them had gone westward soon after the war of 1812, and after this treaty the remnant left. They are still a brave people, hanging about the Mexican border, but greatly reduced in numbers.

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Chapter XII — Settlement of Illinois.

BY J. GILLESPIE.

It is difficult to draw a distinct line of demarcation between the different epochs, that is the French, the Pioneer, and the permanent settler's. They run into each other and become to a considerable extent blended, still in order to present a record of the early history of this state, they must be regarded as distinct eras. The object of the settlement of the French here was two-fold, one was, to extend the theatre of church operations, the other was for commercial purposes. The first adventurers were Ecclesiastical dignitaries, and they located missions wherever they went, Kaskaskia was the centre of their field in this region. Afterward the government of affairs was placed under Crozat and the Company of the Indies — to subserve the commercial purposes. The people who were sent out were used as auxiliaries to these ends. They were located in villages to which were attached common fields of several miles extent, and each settler had his strip or arpent of land for cultivation which was somewhat like a mathematical line, all length and no breadth. The residences of these settlers were clustered in the village within sound of the church bell or the violin of the musician. When these communities became overcrowded a new colony was established similar to the first, and so on. The control of affairs was entirely in the hands of the ecclesiastics. All marriages were authorized and solemnized by them. All entrances into, and exits from this world were under their peculiar supervision. Conveyances of property

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and settlements of controversies, were noted by and effected through their instrumentality. Grants of land and the regulations for their subdivision were ostensibly made by the King of France. But the real power was in the hands of the priesthood, but it seems to have been exercised by them with scrupulous regard to justice and to the satisfaction of the people. These people through the influence of the church and their natural amiability were kept on good terms with the Aborigines. They had no amibition to found an empire, but were willing to live and die as Frenchmen in the service of their religious teachers. They had no desire for change. The country afforded them all they needed in the way of subsistence, and their civil and religious government was all they desired, but their hearts were in la belle France. The French colonies were mere municipalities, and they did not consider themselves as Americans, but as Frenchmen residing on this side of the Atlantic. This was the first stage of European settlement in the valley of the Mississippi. In 1763, the French possessions were ceded to England, but at that time no attempt had been made to establish English settlements on the great river. During the revolutionary war, the expedition of Gen. George Rogers Clark was fitted out by Virginia and succeeded in wresting these French settlements from England. The conquest of the country, so far as the French people were concerned, was an easy task. The English military commandants had made themselves exceedingly obnoxious, and any change was looked upon by the people as for the better. It is true a considerable number of the French crossed the river into Spanish territory and settled in St. Genevieve, Corondolet and St. Louis. The government of Virginia could not pay her troops in money and she provided that the soldiers under Clark should each be entitled to a tract of land in the conquered country in payment for their services. The country being rich beyond anything they had ever thought of, most of them settled here upon their lands, and they were followed by

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their acquaintances who likewise settled in the country. The troops under Clark, although in the service of Virginia, were nevertheless gathered up about the Falls of the Ohio where Louisville now stands, and were composed of Virginians, Kentuckians, Tennesseans, North and South Carolinians, and the people who followed them were from those states. These people differed toto ceolo from the French. They considered themselves as Americans, and hardly knew that they were descended from English stock. They were Indian haters and Indian fighters, and had fewer compunctions of conscience for killing an Indian than they would have for killing a wolf. They were not contented with a narrow strip of land in a common field like the Frenchman. Nothing less than a big farm isolated from neighbors would suit them. They cared nothing for the protection or company that villages afforded, each man generally depended upon himself and his trusty rifle for protection. It is true they assembled in squads to pursue Indian marauders, but generally they lived in solitude, except their families; they possessed greater individuality than any people on earth. These American settlers recognized no authority but that of law, and if they were beyond its reach they made it for the occasion. They had their regulating societies for punishing law breakers, before whom every offender was brought and duly charged, and no man was punished without having an opportunity of being confronted with the witnesses against him, and presenting his defense, if he had any. Generally he had a patient hearing and an impartial decision. These people had no priests like the French to expound the laws, they were natural government makers. Any one of them might be called upon to preside over the deliberations of one of these regulating companies. As soon as government was extended over them they settled down into law-abiding citizens. In 1783, Virginia ceded her rights in the northwestern territory to the United States, stipulating for the preservation of the rights of the old French inhabitants, and of her soldiers

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under Clark, which the government scrupulously carried out and for the purpose of inviting settlers an act of congress was passed giving to heads of families, who should settle in the country and reside a certain length of time, a tract of land. When the country was surveyed there were three classes of titles to lands, the location of which was not accurately known to-wit: the old French claims, then the military rights under the Virginia regime, and lastly head rights under the act of congress. The government of the United States after the survey of the lands directed the land officers at Kaskaskia to take proof and make report as to the location of the above claims, and they appear as claims and surveys in our records as confirmed by congress to the settlers or their assignees, and are principally situated in the counties of Madison, St. Clair, Monroe, Randolph and Peoria. The early American emigrants located generally in the neighborhood of the French settlements which extended along the river from Kaskaskia to Cahokia, and the big mound in Madison. The southern part of Illinois was first settled by the Americans, as the current set in from the southwestern states. People generally emigrate upon the parallel of latitude in which they are raised as nearly as practicable. The emigration from the slave states extended about as far north as the latitude of Springfield, the wealthier going north and the poorer keeping down south. The Americans I have been speaking of I would class as the Pioneers, although a large majority of them became permanent settlers. A great many of these people left the south to get rid of slavery, but many favored the institution and wished to see it introduced here. The state could not be admitted into the Union with a constitution repugnant to the ordinance of 1787, which forever prohibited it in the northwestern territory, but many believed that after the admission the constitution could be changed and slavery admitted, and as the settlers were mostly from the south it was thought a majority would favor it. In 1823, a terrific effort was made to adopt a slavery

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constitution, but it was signally defeated by southern people. Here, in 1823, the great battle of slavery was fought and won by people from the slave states. If Illinois had then enlisted under the pro-slavery banner Indiana would have followed suit, and these two states (or even Illinois) on the side of the south at the breaking out of the rebellion would have made the result, to say the least of it, doubtful. All honor to the men who defeated slavery here in 1823. They builded more wisely than they knew. About 1830 the current of emigration began to set in from the northern states to northern Illinois. Since then the history is known to all men, and I need say nothing about it. I have endeavored to distinguish the epochs in the history of our state into the French, the Pioneer, and the permanent — three distinct eras especially as to social conditions which may with no impropriety be called the childhood, the youth, and the manhood of our state.

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Legislatures of Illinois.

First Territorial Legislature, 1812. Convened at Kaskaskia the 25th day of November, A. D. 1812; adjourned the 26th day of December, 1812. Second session convened and adjourned November 8, A. D. 1813.

Second Territorial Legislature, 1814. First session convened at Kaskaskia the 14th day of November, A. D. 1814; adjourned December 24, A. D. 1814.

Second Territorial Legislature, 1815. Second session convened pursuant to adjournment the 4th day of December, A. D. 1815; adjourned January 11, A. D. 1816.

Third Territorial Legislature, 1816-17. First session convened at Kaskaskia the 2d day of December, A. D. 1816; adjourned January 14, A. D. 1817.

Third Territorial Legislature, 1817-18. Second session convened at Kaskaskia the 1st day of December, A. D. 1817; adjourned January 12, A. D. 1818,

First General Assembly, 1818-20. First session convened at Kaskaskia October 5, 1818; adjourned October 13, 1818. Second session convened at Kaskaskia, January 4, 1819; adjourned March 31, 1819.

Second General Assembly, 1820-22. Convened at Vandalia December 4, 1820; adjourned February 15, 1821.

Third General Assembly, 1822-24. Convened at Vandalia December 2, 1822 ; adjourned February 18,1823.

Fourth General Assembly, 1824-26. First session convened at Vandalia November 15, 1824; adjourned January 18, 1825. Second session convened at Vandalia January 2, 1826; adjourned January 28, 1826.

Fifth General Assembly, 1826-28. Convened at Vandalia December 4, 1826; adjourned February 19, 1827.

Sixth General Assembly, 1828-30. Convened at Vandalia December 1, 1828; adjourned January 23, 1829.

Seventh General Assembly, 1830-32. Convened at Vandalia December 6, 1830; adjourned February 16, 1831.

Eighth General Assembly, 1832-34. Convened at Vandalia December 3, 1832; adjourned March 2, 1833.

Ninth General Assembly, 1834-36. First session convened at Vandalia December 1, 1834; adjourned February 13, 1835. Second session convened at Vandalia December 7, 1835; adjourned January 18, 1836.

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Tenth General Assembly, 1836-38. First session convened at Vandalia December 5, 1836; adjourned March 6, 1837. Second session convened at Vandalia July 10, 1837: adjourned July 22, 1837.

Eleventh General Assembly, 1838-40. First session convened at Vandalia December 3, 1838; adjourned March 4, 1839. Second session convened at Springfield December 9, 1839; adjourned February 3, 1840.

Twelfth General Assembly, 1840-42. First session convened at Springfield November 23, 1840; adjourned December 5, 1840. Second session convened December 7, 1840; adjourned March 1, 1841.

Thirteenth General Assembly, 1842-44. Convened at Springfield December 5, 1842; adjourned March 6, 1843.

Fourteenth General Assembly, 1844-46. Convened at Springfield December 2, 1844; adjourned March 3, 1845.

Fifteenth General Assembly, 1846-48. Convened at Springfield December 7, 1846; adjourned March 1, 1847.

Sixteenth General Assembly, 1848-50. First session convened at Springfield January 1, 1849; adjourned February 12, 1849. Second session convened October 22, 1849; adjourned November 7, 1849.

Seventeenth General Assembly, 1850-52. First session convened at Springfield January 6, 1851; adjourned February 17, 1851. Second session convened June 7, 1852; adjourned June 23, 1852.

Eighteenth General Assembly, 1852-54. First session convened at Springfield January 3, 1853; adjourned February 14, 1853. Second session convened February 9, 1854; adjourned March 4, 1854.

Nineteenth General Assembly, 1854-56. Convened at Springfield January 1, 1855; adjourned February 15, 1855.

Twentieth General Assembly, 1856-58. Convened at Springfield January 5, 1857; adjourned February 19, 1857.

Twenty-first General Assembly, 1858-60. Convened at Springfield Januarys, 1859; adjourned February 24, 1859.

Twenty-second General Assembly, 1860-62. First session convened at Springfield January 7, 1862; adjourned February 22, 1861. Second session convened April 23, 1861; adjourned May 3, 1861.

Twenty-third General Assembly, 1862-64. Convened at Springfield January 5, 1863; adjourned February 14, 1863, till June 2, 1863; prorogued by the Governor June 10, 2863, until December 31, 1864; convened and adjourned December 31, 1864.

Twenty-fourth General Assembly, 1864-66. Convened at Springfield January 2, 1865; adjourned February 16, 1865.

Twenty-fifth General Assembly, 1866-68. First session convened at Springfield January 7, 1867; adjourned February 28, 1867. Second session convened June 11, 1867; adjourned June 13, 1867. Third session convened June 14, 1867; adjourned June 28, 1867.

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Twenty-sixth General Assembly, 1868-70. Convened at Springfield January 4, 1869; adjourned April 20, 1869.

Twenty-seventh General Assembly, 1870-72. First session convened at Springfield January 4, 1871; adjourned April 17, 1871, until November 15, 1871. First special session convened May 24, 1871; adjourned June 22, 1871. Second special session convened October 13, 1871; adjourned October 24, 1871. Convened in regular adjourned session November 15, 1871; adjourned sine die April 9, 1872.

Twenty-eighth General Assembly, 1872-74. First session convened at Springfield January 8, 1873; adjourned May 6, 1873, until January 8, 1874. Convened in adjourned session January 8, 1874; adjourned sine die March 31, 1874.

Twenty-ninth General Assembly, 1874-76. Convened at Springfield January 6, 1875; adjourned sine die April 15, 1875.

Thirtieth General Assembly, 1876-78. Convened at Springfield January 3, 1877; adjourned May 24, 1877.

Thirty-first General Assembly, 1878-80. Convened at Springfield January 8, 1879; adjourned May 31, 1879.

Thirty-second General Assembly, 1880-82. Regular session convened at Springfield January 5, 1881; adjourned May 30, 1881. Special session convened at Springfield March 23, 1882; adjourned May 9, 1882.

Thirty-third General Assembly, 1882-84. Convened at Springfield January 3, 1883.

TERRITORIAL REPRESENTATIVES.

Shadrach Bond was the first delegate to Congress from the territory, serving in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Congresses. He took his seat at the second session of the Twelfth Congress, December 3, 1812, and served until October 3, 1814, when he was appointed Receiver of Public Moneys. Residence, Kaskaskia.

Benjamin Stephenson succeeded Bond, and took his seat at the third session of the Thirteenth Congress, November 14, 1814, and served during the third session of the Thirteenth and first session of the Fourteenth Congresses, when he was also appointed Receiver of Public Moneys April 29, 1816. Residence, Edwardsville

Nathaniel Pope was elected the successor of Benjamin Stephenson, and entered Congress at the second session of the Fourteenth Congress, December 2, 1816, and served during that session and the first session of the Fifteenth Congress — he being the delegate at the time of the admission of the territory as a state. Residence, Kaskaskia.

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SENATORS.

       
Name.
Term of service.
Residence.
Remarks.
Ninian Edwards... 1818-19 Kaskaskia  
Jesse B. Thomas.. 1818-23 Kaskaskia  
Ninian Edwards 1819-24 Edwardsville His own successor. Resigned 1834.
Jesse B. Thomas .. 1823-29 Edwardsville His own successor.
John McLean...... 1824-25 Shawneetown Vice Edwards, resigned.
Elias Kent Kane... 1825-31 Kaskasia To succeed McLean.
John McLean 1824-25 Shawneetown Died — , 1830.
David J. Baker Nov. 12 to Dec. 11,1830 Kaskaskia Appointed by Gov. Edwards to succeed McLean.
John M. Rohinson. 1830-35 Carmi Elected to succeed McLean.
Elias Kent Kane 1831-35 Kaskasia His own successor. Died December 12, 1835.
John M. Rohinson 1835-41 Carmi His own successor.
Wm. L. D. Ewing 1835-37 Vandalia Vice Kane, deceased.
Rich'd M. Young 1837-43 Jonesboro To succeed Ewing.
Sam'l McRoberts 1841-43 Waterloo To succeed Robinson. Died March 32, 1843.
Sidney Breese 1843-49 Carlyle To succeed Young.
James Semple 1843-47 Alton Appointed by Gov. Ford to succeed McRoberts, deceased.
Stephen A. Douglas 1847-53 Quincy To succeed Semple.
James Shields 1849-55 Springfield To Succeed Breese.
Stephen A. Douglas 1853-56 Chicago His own successor.
Lyman Trumbull 1855-61 Belleville To succeed Shields.
Stephen A. Douglas 1859-61 Chicago His own successor. Died June 3, 1861.
Lyman Trumhull 1861-67 Chicago His own successor.
Orville H. Browning 1861-63 Quincy Appointed by Gov. Yates to succeed Douglas, April 26, 1861.
Wm. A. Richardson 1863-65 Quincy Elected to succeed Browning for unexpired term of Douglas.
Richard Yates 1865-71 Jacksonville To succeed Richardson.
Lyman Trumbull 1867-73 Chicago His own successor.
John A. Logan 1871-77 Chicago To succeed Yates.
Richard J. Oglesby 1873-79 Decatur To succeed Trumbull.
David Davis 1877-83 Bloomington To succeed Logan.
John A. Logan 1879-85 Chicago To succeed Oglesby.
Shelby M Cullom 1883-89 Springfield To succeed Davis.

Each state, whether large or small, is represented in the United States Senate by two Senators, to be chosen by the legislature of the states. The term of a Senator is six years.

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NOTES EXPLAINING THE MAP.

The route of Marquette and Joliet is a heavy dotted line down the Mississippi river and up the Illinois and Desplaines rivers, thence to the "Chicagou" portage and down the west shore of Lake Michigan, which was at that time called Lake Illinois, after the native tribes of the country.

The route of La Salle is a heavy dotted line down the Kankakee, the Illinois and the Mississippi rivers. The Illinois river was first named the Seignelay river, after the French colonial minister.

The old Peoria villages at the mouth of the Des Moines river, Iowa, are connected with the Kaskaskia villages near the bend of the Illinois river by a trail. This trail was put on a reprint of Thevenot's map, inserted in Spark's "History of Marquette" and Joliet's "Discoveries" as the line of their return, but Parkman claims that it was an error, and it is now conceded by all historians who have written on the subject that their return was up the Illinois from its mouth, as shown on the map herewith. But the route across the country, though evidently not the one traveled by the discoverers, was doubtless an old Indian path on a direct line of communication from the Mississippi to the Chicago portage.

The Kaskaskia and Detroit trail connected the two places by an overland route soon after white settlements had begun at each. Detroit was settled in 1701 — one year later than Kaskaskia.

The trail of George Rogers Clark from Fort Massac to Kaskaskia marks an epoch in American history of transcendent

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import. It passed close by the present site of Marion, and afterwards became a well-frequented trail between Golconda and Kaskaskia, but its route was improved by Mr. Worthen in 1821, as shown on the map. Clark's route from Kaskaskia to Vincennes the next year, 1779, followed a path through the country which had been traveled before most of the way, as a connecting road between the distant French settlements at Vincennes, made about 1710, and the French villages of Illinois.

The trails centering at Danville show this place to have been a great metropolis of the natives, especially in the days of Kickapoo occupation of the country. One of these trails was made by Gurdon S. Hubbard (a present well-known citizen of Chicago), to facilitate Indian trade. Another was made by Mr. Beckwith (an early settler at Danville) for a similar purpose.

Governor Edwards' route from Camp Russell to the vicinity of Peoria was the line of his invasion of the Indian country in 1812.

The route of Hopkins, leading from Fort Harrison, on the Wabash, into Livingston county, was also a raid into the Indian country at the same date.

General Howard's route the next year, 1813, from Camp Russell up the Mississippi to the present site of Nauvoo, thence east to the Illinois river, and up its west bank to Peoria and Gomos village, also shows a track of invasion into the Indian country.

The Fort Clark and Wabash trail was a well-traveled road from the settlements of Southern Ohio and Indiana to Fort Clark in the early day.

The Sauk trail, leading from Rock Island eastwardly through the state, was the path of the Sauks and Foxes from their great village on the Mississippi to Maiden, in Canada, to which place the whole tribe went every year to get their annuities from the English government. Portions of it are still

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visible on the prairies, says Mr. C. C. P. Holden, of Chicago, who has assisted the author in locating it.

James Watson Webb's line of travel from Fort Dearborn, in 1822, to La Sallier's trading post, thence to the Mississippi, and down it to Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, is a monument of the courage and hardihood of this young man, who was then an officer in Fort Dearborn. He made this trip alone, in the dead of winter, to warn the garrison against an Indian surprise, and this saved the fort. On his return, as a prudential measure, he took a more southern route, as shown in the map.

Kellogg's trail shows the first overland route from Peoria to Galena. It was made by Mr. Kellogg, an old pioneer settler, in 1825, and subsequently became a well-known route.

Black Hawk's advance is a dotted line up Rock river, which terminated in the Black Hawk war of 1832.

Scott's army trail from Fort Dearborn to the Winnebago village where Rock river crosses the Wisconsin line, thence down the river to Rock Island, was the route of his army who came to Illinois to defend the settlers from the hostile Sauks, of whom Black Hawk was chief.

The foregoing trails show the first known lines of travel in the state. The early roads made by the settler are shown by two parallel lines connecting the chief towns of the early day. The early points settled are located and dotted, making no further explanation necessary.

The Tablet of Illinois History begins in a decade, the first part of which was pre-historic as to Illinois. The Tablet runs through the last part of the seventeenth century, through the eighteenth entire, and as far as time has advanced in the nineteenth, showing a chronological chain of events in and allied to Illinois history subdivided into decades.

124

The progress of settlements in Illinois is shown in a small map in the margin, by summarizing periods of time respecting the settlement of various localities in the state.

The Book is a detail of not only the historical illustrations of the maps, but a detail of what grew out of the events thus localized and dated. The two together are designed to bring geography and chronology to the support of history.

nts

Notes.

1. Graham's Colonial History.

2. Blanchard's Northwest, Chap. I.

3. Doc. Hist. of New York.

4. Discovery of the Mississippi, p. 51.

5. Le Clercque, Vol. II, p. 117.

6. Discovery of the Mississippi, p. 56.

7. Gravier's Relation, 1693.

8. Gravier's Journal du Voyage.

9. Shea's Catholic Mission, pp. 421-2.

10. See Johnson Papers in Doc. Hist. of New York.

11. Crogan's Journal.

12. Colonial Records of Perm.

13. See Dillon's Indiana, Blanchard's Northwest, under head of " Dunmore's War."

14. See Journal of Continental Congress.

15. Butler's Kentucky.

16. This noble woman's life was spared by the timely interposition of Black Partridge. After her ransom she wrote a graphic account of the battle, which was published in Wabun, and transferred from thence to various other histories.

17. John Kinzie was sent in irons to Maiden, from which place while prisoner he beheld the smoke of Perry's victory on the lake and the retreat of the Little Belt and her capture. Blanchard's NorthweSt.

18. This must have been soon after Black Hawk's return from the army of General Proctor. See Black Hawk's narration in Smith's Doc. Hist. of Wis.

19. "Ford's History of Illinois gives in full the reasons for extending the northern boundary.

20. See E. B. Washburne's Life of Governor Coles.

21. For this incident the writer is indebted to a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Dixon, who now survives her worthy parents at the place.

22. Reynolds' Illinois.

23. The stampede of the Chicago villagers is vouched for to the writer by Benjamin Hall, who married a sister of Judge Caton.

24. R. N. Murray, who now lives in Naperville, was employed as teamster by Cummings on the march, and to him is the writer indebted for the location of the route taken.

25. For the route of General Scott the writer is indebted to Louis Elsworth, of Naperville, who conferred with the general while at the place on his way.

26. Drake.

27. Davidson and Stuve.

28. Idem.

29. To E. B. Talcott and Gurdon S. Hubbard belongs the honor of first proposing this plan.

30. See Marquette's Journal, written in "Chicagou," 1675, translated by J. G. Shea, and published in English in Dawson's Historical Mag., New York.

31. When England conceded the Mississippi river as the western boundary of the United States at the peace of 1783, she also transferred to the new government her rights of navigating this stream. When this treaty was signed at Paris, it was done without the knowledge of the Spanish minister, who claimed for his government all the territory between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi. Spain thus balked in her ambition to secure the valley of the Mississippi to herself, was smarting under the sting of having been humiliated by the able diplomacy of American statesmen, which was the cause of her waywardness in excluding the Americans from navigating the Mississippi. Her excuse for this course was that England had transferred a claim to which she herself had no right, which was perhaps true, but it was in vain that the Spanish government protested against the new order of destiny that the fortunes of war had brought.

32. See Treaty of San Lorenzo el Real, Am. State Papers, 1795.

33. See paper read by W. K. Ackerman before the Chicago Historical Society, February, 1883.

34. Ackerman's Address.

35. See Wabun.

36. This information is obtained from Gurdon S. Hubbard, who came to Chicago the next year, and still lives at the place.

37. Copies of these surveys are preserved at Handy & Co.'s, Chicago.

38. Mr. Webb is still living in New York, and it is from his own letters to the writer that the above facts have been obtained.