ills

Pictures and Illustrations.

D. S. Morgan

Fish Bros. Wagon Co.

Avery Planter Co.

Van Brunt

Van Brunt

Buckeye

Buckeye Banner Binder

Buckeye Mower

Buckeye Binder

Steel Junior

Chain Power Mower

Double Equalizer

Furrow Wheels

No Side Draft

L. L. Polk

Burlington Blanket

Carriage

Marion Butler, Vice President

Ben Terrell, Lecturer

H. C. Demming, Secretary Executive Committee

Broadcast Feeder

Fanning Mill

Feed Cutter

Mann Page, Member Executive Committee

I. E. Dean, Member Executive Committee

R. A. Southworth, Member Judiciary Committee

Appleton M.F.G.

Abram Ellwood

Cummings

Level Land

Dayton

1893 Steel Beauty

Farmers Friend

Steel Beauty

Land Roller

Advance Thresher Co.

No. 4 Buckeye

Fertilizer Drills

Plow

Steam Roller

Store Front

Farmers Bank

Craver Header

Tank

Thresher Mfg. Co.

ACME Havester Co.

Altman

5

D. S. Morgan

Fish Bros. Wagon Co.

Avery Planter Co.

SEEDERS AND DRILLS.

Van Brunt

Their Frames are Solid Steel, uncut at corners, with steel Braces, Drag-bars and Axles.

The Van Brunt Force Feed is the most perfect known, wind proof, sowing all kinds of grain, grass or flax-seed, corn or peas, with no change of gears, the adjustment being controlled by one lever.

The draft is the lightest consistent with good work. The wide machines sow their full width or part width as desired, and they are just as rigid and durable as the narrow ones.

WE CAN FURNISH IN TWO, THREE AND FOUR HORSE SIZES

Broadcast Seeders, with Spring Teeth or Reversible teeth, that work perfectly in any soil and are the best cultivators in use.

Hoe Drills, with or without Hoe Shifting Attachments, with or without Broadcast Attachments.

Shoe Press Drills. The best made. Shoes adapted to any soil, both in quality, temper and shape, and the most durable in use. Pressure the most direct and capable of the greatest variation. Both the degree of pressure and angle at which shoes work can be altered while Drill is in motion. Chain or Press Wheel Covers.

The perfection to which these machines have been brought will save you money in seed, time and repair bills. They are the most economical seeding machines to buy. Terms reasonable. Send for catalogue and prices.

Van Brunt

6

Preface.

THE universal demand among Alliance Lodges for accurate information regarding the growth and accomplishments of the Organization have suggested the compilation of this book. An exhaustive research has been made to supply this information, and nothing has been left undone to make this work complete in every detail.

We have also endeavored to make this book a Buyer's Guide, giving the leading responsible firms in the different lines of business in which the farmers are interested, and those firms who have rendered assistance in publishing this book are especially commended to your consideration; we confidently expect that they will be rewarded by an increased patronage from the members of this Order.

7

Buckeye

Buckeye Frameless Binder.

No heavy frame work. Perfect simplicity and reliability. No sectors, no loose-ended axles. No possible twisting of bearings or gears. Chain drive, only one gear. Cuts through two guards. Best reel, no posts, no chains. Wide range of adaptability. Easiest managed, easiest on team, best work. Excellent bundle carrier. Handy truck.

Buckeye Banner Binder.

Dispenses with elevator canvases. Low. light, a favorite over every binder in hilly farming. Very light draft. Clean cutting and saving. Ready for large and long work in any crop. Positive separation. Bundle carrier equal to the best. Best and simplest reel; open ended platform.

Buckeye Mower.

Light, tubular frame. Long shafting. Brass boxing. Adjustable bearings. Simplest gears. Double hook pitman and shear cut. Direct draft. Close cutting. Light of draft, handsome in finish. Durable. Folding the bar for transport.

Address Aultman, Miller & Co. for Buckeye Annual Catalogue.

Buckeye Binder

9

MILWAUKEE

Lightest in Draft, Finest in Finish, Made of the Best Material, Most Durable, Easiest Handled, Easiest to Sell.

Steel Junior

It is the only genuine Two-Horse harvester and binder manufactured.

The guards are made of malleable iron and have steel ledger plants.

The A frames are low and have an easy grade.

It is a perfectly balanced machine, has no weight on the horses' necks and no side draft.

The journal boxes in the main frame are self-aligning, consequently no cutting of the bearings.

The reel is operated up or down and backward and forward by a single lever.

The reel has a fast or slow motion.

The entire machine is raised and lowered from the seat by a single lever.

The twine box shifts with the binder, and is always in sight of the driver.

The weight of the entire machine is carried upon a spring, consequently there is no shearing off of bolts and rivets nor springing of frame.

Our steel Junior Harvester and Binder No. 10 weighs less than any other Harvester and Binder manufactured. Only 1,250 lbs.

It is also the LIGHTEST DRAFT machine manufactured.

The compressor is located under the knotter and not at the end of the binder.

Write for Catalogue and Prices.

Chain Power Mower

The Milwaukee Chain Power Mower possesses all of the necessary requirements of a perfect mower, and stands first in the list of grass cutting machines.

The weight of the cutting apparatus is carried upon the axle between the drive wheels, thus increasing the traction power of the Machine and making it a strong cutter.

The speed of the sickle is such as has been determined by careful observation and long experience to be best adapted to all kinds of cutting. The cutter bar is steel, and is of that shape and of such proportions as is best calculated to insure lightness combined with strength. The shoes are of malleable iron, and are provided with steel soles which are easily adjusted for different heights of stubble. The guards are bolted to the bar with the nuts upon the lower side, than leaving the upper side smooth and free from obstructions.

The drag bar is so connected with the cutter bar as to cause the machine to draw the bar instead of pushing it; this, in conjunction with the spring which floats the bar over rough and uneven ground, is one of the reasons why the Milwaukee Chain Power Mower is the lightest draft machine in the market.

The guard is made of malleable iron, and is faced with broad steel ledger plates with beveled edges, thus forming with the section a perfect shear cut. The guards can be easily unbolted from the bar and resharpened.

Milwaukee Harvester Company,
MILWAUKEE, WIS.

10

Officers.

President, H. L. LOUCKS, Huron, South Dakota.
Vice-President, MARION BUTLER, Clinton, North Carolina.
Sec'y-Treas., D. P. DUNCAN, Columbia, S. C.
Lecturer, BEN TERRELL, Texas, Address, 239 N. Capitol St., Washington, D. C.

Executive Committee
H. L. LOUCKS, Chairman, Huron, South Dakota.
H. C. DEMMING, Secretary, Hartisburg, Pennsylvania.
MANN PAGE, Brandon, Virginia. L. LEONARD, Mt. Leonard, Missouri.
I. E. DEAN, Honeoye Falls, New York.

Judiciary Committee
M. D. Davie, Chairman, Beverly, Kentucky.
R. W. BECK, East Lake, Alabama. R. A. SOUTHWORTH, Denver, Colorado.

11

J. I. CASE MAKES THE BEST SWINGING ARCH CULTIVATORS.

DON'T SEE-SAW THE OPERATOR.

Double Equalizer

We make Walking Tongue and Tongueless Biding and Combined with a great variety of gangs.

4 and 6 Shovel Gangs
Parallel "
Eagle Claw "
Spring Tooth "
Blade Attachment "

The Wizard shown in the cut opposite, is a most popular style swinging arch double equalizers, each horse pulling his own lead, without see sawing the operator. Can be furnished with any of the above gangs.

STEEL AND CHILL PLOWS, SULKIES AND GANGS.
A BOY CAN OPERATE IT.

TRIUMPH SULKY.

Furrow Wheels

Farmers say it is the best three wheeled sulky made. The objections to other sulkies, hard draft and unnecessary wear of parts, are entirely overcome in the Triumph. Farmers who had condemned sulky plows as HORSE KILLERS and declared they never would buy one again, after using the Triumph have said it was LIGHTER DRA FT THAN THEIR WALKING PLOW. But don't take their word or ours, try one yourself; if it don't do what we claim for it, don't buy it.

QUESTION. Does it pay us to advertise in this book? Mr. Blood says it does; but how are we to know? If we don't know, are we likely to advertise with him again next year?

ANSWER. The only way we can tell is for each person that reads this to write us, if only to say he has seen our ad. We want to know. Wouldn't you?

HARROWS, WALKING AND RIDING CULTIVATORS.

No Side Draft

We claim the Triumph Gang excels all others. Are we right? Answer the following practical questions and see:

Where is there another gang you can hitch four horses abreast, three on land, one in furrow, and not have side draft? There is none on Triumph.

Where is there another gang that will plow level at any depth from 2 to 8 inches? Triumph will.

Where is there another gang that a boy can operate? Boys can handle the Triumph.

Ask your dealer for our goods, take no other.

Send for our new Sulky and Gang book.

Address,
J. I. CASE PLOW WORKS,
Racine, Wis.

13

MOST PRACTICAL! MOST DURABLE!! MOST ECONOMICAL!!!
Every member of the
National Farmers' Alliance
and Industrial Union
Cannot afford to be without The Best. Call for the
BURLINGTON "STAY ON" STABLE BLANKET.
EVERY BLANKET STAMPED BURLINGTON.

Burlington Blanket

NO Sursingles required.
NO Tight Girthing.
NO Chafing of Mane.
NO Rubbing of Tail.
NO Come off to them.
NO Horse can wear them under his feet.

CAUTION!

Do not be deceived by numerous inferior imitations that will be offered you but be sure that every blanket is stamped Burlington!

TAKE NO OTHER.

Always get the genuine.

Do not be led astray by unfounded arguments.

This Blanket is Patented March 10,1891.

Ask your dealer for them; if he does not keep them in stock insist upon having him order them for you, and do not accept any that he may say are just as good.

Have the Genuine.
MAUFACTURED ONLY BY THE
BURLINGTON BLANKET COMPANY
BULLINGTON, WIS., U. S. A.

14

Kentucky Wagon Mfg. Co.
Manufacturers

Carriage

"Old Hickory" "Tennessee" Farm Freight Wagons
Annual Capacity, 30,000 Complete Wagons.
Complete Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue will be mailed on application.
LOUISVILLE, KY.

The Hancock Rotary Plow

Keep all bolts tight and all bearings well oiled.

Run the furrow wheels in the furrow.

Run the plow level.

To change the width of cut. Move the frame to or from the land wheels, and block between the beams of the frame.

This plow, represented in the above cut, plowing twenty inches in width with three horses, is the most remarkable invention of the age in plows. With three to six horses, twenty to thirty-six inches may be plowed, making thirty-two to seventy-two inches each round of the field. For Prices and information, address

The Hancock Rotary Plow Co.
(Sole Manufacturers) Indianapolis, Ind.

16

Union Wind Mill Co
Albion, Mich.

Foster's Perfect Broadcast Feeder.

Broadcast Feeder

Has double gear; wind shift; spring clutch.

Badger State Fanning Mill.

Fanning Mill

The best Farm Mill made.

VICTOR FEED CUTTERS, HAY GATHERERS, HORSE POWERS, CARRIERS, JACKS.
FOSTER & WILLIAMS MFG. Co., Racine, Wis.

Feed Cutter

The Kelly Duplex Grinding Mill
The best in the market. Manufactured by
THE O. S. KELLY CO.,
Successors to the Springfield Engine and Thresher Co.,
SPRINGFIELD O.

Also Manufacturers of Traction and Portable Engines, Threshing Machines, Kelly Self-Swinging Stackers, Horse Powers, Grain Measures, Etc.

Write for Catalogue and Discounts.

18

McMullen's Woven Wire Fencing.
BEST FOR ALL PURPOSES.

The twisted wire rope selvage is a peculiar feature of our fencing, and is far superior to a single wire salvage.

Poultry and Rabbit Fencing Superior to all others.

If you wish to fence lawn, garden orchard, farm, ranch, railroad or cemetery, address

THE McMULLEN WOVEN WIRE FENCE CO.,
118 AND 120 N. MARKET ST., CHICAGO, ILL.

THE ECONOMY BOLSTER SPRING
HAS NEVER BEEN EXCELLED.

Bolster Spring

Causes less wear on the bolster than any other spring made.
Graduated for light or heavy load.

Thousands of sets of the Economy Bolster Springs in use and none could be bought back if others of the same style could not be had. Every set warranted.

MANUFACTURED BY
RACINE ECONOMY SPRING COMPANY,
RACINE, WISCONSIN.

THE BEST CROPS
ARE ALWAYS GROWN BY USING THE
PURE BONE FERTILIZERS,
MANUFACTURED BY
WALKER, STRATMAN & CO.
GRINDERS OF BONE,
PITTSBURGH, PA.

HON. HENRY TALCOTT, Ex-Assistant Dairy and Food Commissioner of the State of Ohio says: "I have used your goods for several years with grand results. I consider them the best I ever had..............

WRITE US FOR CATALOGUE, SAMPLES AND PRICES.

19

H. L. Loucks.

(Written by Mrs. A. L. Diggs for the Arena.)

Mr. H. L. Loucks, President of the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, was born in 1846, in Ontario, Canada. He is a practical farmer and a college graduate. His earnest, kindly nature has always impelled him to active participation in whatever moral reform or beneficent undertakings were next at hand. He was Worthy Chief of the Independent Order of Good Templars, of Canada, before he was twenty-five years old.

He has lived on his farm near Clear Lake, South Dakota, several years, and during that time has been one of the most influential men of the State.

The first Independent, or People's Party, convention, growing out of Alliance education was held in Dakota, June 7, 1890, and was called by Mr. Loucks and Mr. Wardall. This convention ante-dated the Kansas People's Party organization, and makes Dakota, rather than the former State, the birthplace of the great organized political revolt against the two old parties, which has been steadily gaining strength since its inception.

H. L. Loucks was candidate for governor on the People's Party ticket in their first State campaign. He made a powerful canvass. His speeches were noted for earnest argument and moral fervor.

Mr. Loucks was president of the National Farmers' Alliance (open Alliance) when it was in its most flourishing condition, but resigned his position believing that the methods of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union would prove more effective, and also that the strength of the farmers of the nation should be concentrated in one national body. This action on the part of Mr. Loucks, in giving up a position of honor and influence, is characteristic of his unselfishness.

Mr. Loucks is editor of the official newspaper of the Dakota Alliance. Much of his work, his speaking and writing, for several years has been done under such distressing invalidism as to render it heroic. Within the last year he has suffered the amputation of a leg, since which time his health has been restored.

Mr. Loucks never could be a politician. His unquestioning devotion to all that to him seems to be right makes him entirely fearless of consequences. He could never parley for one moment, nor look expediency in the face. Whatever is truth to him is to be spoken as a matter of course. He is the incarnation of common sense and conscience.

As an evidence of the esteem in which he is held at home, let us add Mr. Loucks is now serving his seventh year, in succession, as president of the Dakota Alliance.

Appleton M.F.G.

21

Marion Butler,

President North Carolina State Alliance and Vice-President National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, was born in Sampson co., North Carolina, May 20, 1863. His grandfather, James Butler, settled in Sampson county in 1760, and was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. One hundred years later his father, Wiley Butler, entered the Confederate army. At the close of the four years struggle, the subject of this sketch was a child in his mother's arms. He was raised on his father's farm, eleven miles from the county seat, and was prepared for college by his mother and at Salem High School, a neighboring county academy. He entered the University of North Carolina in 1881 and graduated in 1885. He had taken the law course at the University in addition to the regular collegiate course, and would have entered the legal profession the same year, but the sudden death o his father at this time changed the course of his life. He was the oldest boy and had three younger or others and three sisters to be educated. His father had made sacrifices to educate him from the proceeds of the farm. It required no reflection to show him the line of his duty. He at once went home and took charge of the farm, and to help educate his brothers and sisters at home he soon accepted the Principalship of the neighborhood academy, where he was prepared for college.

It was while he was engaged in this work is the spring of 1888 that an "organizer" appeared and asked permission to organize an Alliance ledge at the Academy. Mr. Butler, who, though only a beardless boy, had watched and studied the Alliance movement from its incipiency in Texas, at once not only gave his consent, but his assistance. The next evening a large and strong lodge was organized. One week later the county lodge was organized and Marion Butler was elected President. He was at home on the farm when a committee came to notify him of his election. He accepted and at once threw his whole soul and energy into, the work. He at once saw the power of and necessity of newspapers in a reform fight against a power whose policy was to control or to silence the press, so he rode to the county seat the next day and bought the Clinton Caucasian, a small country weekly and the only county paper, which was edited by two lawyers. And from that day on the Alliance movement has nowhere in the State been stronger than in Sampson and the adjoining counties. His paper grew till it was the largest county weekly in the State. In 1890 he was elected to the State Senate, after a hard fight, as the champion of the Railroad Commission. Under his leadership the present State Railroad Commission law was enacted and a movement put on foot to force every corporation in the State to list its property and pay just taxes on the same. It was a hard and bitter fight, but he won and from that day to this the corporations, and their tools, the politicians, have waged a ceaseless warfare against him.

In 1891 he was elected president of the State Alliance of North Carolina to succeed Enas Carr the present governor of the State. In 1892 he was re-elected by acclamation. He presided as chairman over the first State Convention of the Peoples' Party, and would have been nominated for governor if he had been 30 years old, the constitutional age. He declined to accept any place on the State ticket, but took the position of elector for the State-at-large. He canvassed the State with practically no assistance, and made one of the hardest fights against tremendous odds ever seen in North Carolina.

At the Memphis meeting of the National Alliance he was elected first vice-president of the national organization on the first ballot. He attended the first national meeting at Indianapolis, in 1891, and was a delegate to the St. Louis Conference and Memphis meeting in 1892. He is still under 30 years of age and is to-day one of the most potent factors in the reform movement in the whole country. His paper, The Caucasian, was burned during the campaign, but it is on its feet again and is pushing rapidly toward a circulation of 20,000.

22

Abram Ellwood

ESTABLISHED 1870.
The Hooven & Allison
XENIA, OHIO.

Manufacturers of CORDAGE, ROPE and BINDER TWINE of all kinds.

Only old mill in the West that kept out of the Trust. Absolutely guarantee to give the length and quality that we agree to. Also make Hemp Binder Twine and all kinds of Hemp and Cotton Commercial Twines.

23

Ben. Terrell.

National Lecturer F. A. & I. U.

The subject of this sketch was born on the 10th day of July, 1842, in Colorado co., Texas. He was raised on a farm and stock ranch, until 18 years of age, when he enlisted in Company A, 4th Regiment Texas Infantry, Hood's old Regiment, which formed part of the famous Old Brigade that participated in so many battles during the war.

He took part in most of the battles fought by Lee's army, was slightly wounded several times, and at the battle of Sharpsburg received a severe wound. After recovery, he rejoined the army, and remained until after the surrender. With the close of the war he returned to Texas, and engaged in farming in Guadaloup co., whither his parents had moved during the war.

Becoming dissatisfied with the political conditions of his native state, he went to Mexico, and stayed five years; then returning to Guadaloup co., and again engaged in farming. In 1876 he was married to Miss Katie Heaner, of Leesville, Texas, whose parents were natives of South Carolina. He continued farming until Nov., 1886, when he joined the Delaney Alliance as a charter member, and was its first lecturer. He helped organize the National Alliance in 1887, and was elected National Lecturer. He was also elected one of the Executive Committee of the State Alliance of Texas, and a Trustee of the Alliance Exchange of that State for the 7th district.

At the first meeting of the National Alliance, held at Shreveport, La., he was re-elected National Lecturer, and at the National meeting at Meridian, Miss., was again re-elected to the same position.

When the Alliance and Wheel met, for the first time, at their consolidation, at St. Louis, in Dec. 1889, he was again elected to the position of National Lecturer. Mr. Terrell is a man of strong personal characteristics, with a personal magnetism that at once attracts and holds the attention of his hearers. As a speaker he is calm and deliberate, and every sentence is delivered with clear enunciation. Courteous in his manners, conservative in his views, and positive and self-confident in the presentation of arguments, he combines those qualities that have contributed so largely to his usefulness and popularity in the office he has for so long a time held.

At Ocala, Fla., in 1890, he was elected a member of the Committee on Confederation, and by their committee made its chairman. At the first meeting of the orders confederating, he was elected President. It was under his call that the famous conference of the Confederated Industrial Organizations was held at St. Louis in 1892; and he occupied the chair when the demands were adopted. At the last National meeting of the P. A. & I. U. he was again elected Lecturer, and now holds that position for five years out of the seven years of the existence of the order.

24

J. M. JAMES, PREST. C. I. CONKLIN, SECY. J. L. SMITH. SUPT.

CUMMINGS HARVESTER CO.

Cummings

MANUFACTURERS OF
The Cummings Header.

WRITE FOR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. Pekin, Ill.

THE PRINCESS PLOW CO., CANTON, OHIO, U. S. A.

Level Land

The Princess has many imitators, but not an equal.

We manufacture these plows, in all sizes from a small, light one horse to a large two and three horse plow.

The material used is from the common cast, graded up to the finest diamond steel.

If you want the furrow to turn to the right or left, all you have to do is to notify us.

We make them.

If you want the best, strongest, lightest, handsomest, smoothest running plow on earth, one that will make you smile and your team fat and sleek, purchase a Princess Plow.

If no agent in your locality, write us direct and you will find price named will please you also.

Address
The Princess Plow Co
Canton, O., U. S. A.

25

Henry C. Demming.

Member and Secretary of the Executive Committee National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union.

Henry Clay Demming was born in Geneva, Ontario county, New York, September 28, 1842. Soon after his father moved to a farm west of Dresden, in Yates county, and then to a little farm west of Geneva. The subject of this sketch received the first rudiments of his education under the instruction of his mother, and also at the old red country school house; afterwards at the Union Classical Institute in Geneva. After leaving this institution he learned the trades of printing and horticulture.

In the fall of 1859 he left his uncle's horticultural farm on the western bank of Seneca Lake, New York, and worked at farming in Luzerne county, Pa.; and, when farm work ceased for the year, located in Harrisburg, working at printing and holticulture; and then as reporter, correspondent and editor.

He entered the federal army as a private in 1861, served as a member of the 2nd, 8th and 4th army corps, and was finally discharged in February, 1866, being at the time a member of the staff of General George A. Custer, then stationed in Texas. He subsequently served in the National Guard of Pennsylvania, and was on the staffs of Major General Thomas J. Jordan, and Governors Pattison and Beaver; also on the staff of Governor Scales, of North Carolina. He gradually rose from private in 1861 and 1862 to Colonel in 1887.

In 1873 he became active in the Grange movement, and was one of the two founders of the FARMERS' FRIEND, the Grange organ for New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and West Virginia. He was president of his Grange a number of years; and the first president of the first Pomona Grange in Pennsylvania. Was State organizer of the Grange of Pennsylvania for a number of terms.

He was made one of the officers of the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture at the time of its organization in 1877, and remained in that capacity until 1891; has also been a member and officer of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society for many years.

While learning the trade of horticulturist on his uncle's farm at Big Stream, Yates county, New York, he took up and afterwards mastered shorthand, and has held numerous official positions as stenographer, in Pennsylvania and elsewhere; and became the president of the International Stenographers' Congress at Toronto, Canada, in August, 1883. In early life Colonel Demming read law, but never applied tor admission to the bar, law practice being decidedly at variance with his inclinations. He also read medicine, and has been the official stenographer of an eminent American medical body for more than 22 years. He has reported the proceedings of scientific and technical organizations in perhaps more than one-half of the states of the Union, as well as Canada.

At home Colonel Demming has for many years been actively engaged in Sunday School and church work, and holds official positions in connection with several ecclesiastical and charitable bodies. He has been the secretary of the National evangelical body with which he is connected.

In the winter of 1884-5 he purchased a quantity of land in the counties of Washington and Frederick, Maryland, known as the richest peach belt in that State. In May, 1885, he was one of the purchasers of large tracts of land in McDowell county, North Carolina, where farming and mining have been carried on from year to year, each year the work being enlarged and improved. These tracts now embody several thousand acres, with a large area under cultivation, besides the work of mining for the precious metals, mica, (isinglass,) iron ore, granite and flag-stone. This enterprise has been almost continuously under the general management of Colonel Demming, — the labor increasing until a large force is employed, and expensive machinery purchased and erected, the latter capable of doing the work of more than 500 men. In addition Colonel Demming is the owner of about 1,000 acres, of land in Swain county, North Carolina, which he uses almost exclusively for arboriculture.

In the work of the Farmers' Alliance Colonel Demming has been an active member from the beginning in Pennsylvania. He instituted the first sub-alliance in that State, was unanimously elected

26

its first president, and has held either that office or some other therein since its organization, now serving, as president for the 5th term. He was made state organizer by Colonel Polk, and in eight months had advanced the work so aggressively that a State Alliance was constituted, of which he was made the first President, subsequently serving as State Secretary until after his appointment by President Polk as member and Chairman of the Judiciary Board of the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union.

He was elected a delegate to the National Council at Ocala, Florida, where he served as the Chairman of the Committee on Secret Work, also as a member of the Committee on Constitution. Was a member of the Indianapolis Council, and a delegate to Memphis. At the Ocala, Indianapolis and Memphis meetings he was made chairman of a permanent Committee on Summer Encampment, and has been preparing the way for the greatest annual gathering and encampment of farmers ever held. He has had much experience in farmers' fairs and encampments of magnitude, being one of the two who started the mammoth annual Grange Encampment at Williams' Grove, Pennsylvania, and later the no less remarkable annual gathering of farmers at Mount Gretna, Pennsylvania, the aggregate attendance at the two in 1892 exceeding 120,000 persons. He believes the Farmers' Alliance able to have an Encampment with an attendance of more than 250,000 farmers, and have it made a social, educational and business gathering of incalculable benefit to the farmers of America. He maintains that through such a yearly Encampment an American Farmers' Exchange can be established, through which all the farmers of this continent can fix the prices of their products, and not have others do it for them; — in other words, bring to an end the present system whereby the farmer permits others to establish all the prices when he sells, as well as when he buys, — an imposition tolerated by no other class on earth.

At the last National Council Colonel Demming was made chairman of the Committee on Credentials, and chairman of the Committee on Finance, and served as member of the Committee on Memorial; of Brother L. L. Polk. He was also elected, by ballot, one of the members of the Executive Committee of the National Farmers' Alliance, and by that Committee unanimously chosen its Secretary.

His family — a devoted wife and five children — make Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, their home; but the subject of this brief biographical sketch is necessarily absent therefrom much of the time, mainly at Demming, McDowell county, North Carolina, the headquarters of his farming and mining operations in the great new South.

Colonel Demming believes the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union should be not only in. name, but in fact a practical co-operative body, banded together for the mutual benefit and advancement of every member, though keeping in view the common brotherhood of man. He thinks that every subordinate alliance should be a perfect organization, working in harmony with every other subordinate alliance in the country. When a decision is reached relative to any local policy, every member of every sub-alliance should work in harmony with it. To this end he believes the most competent and faithful should hold the offices of president and secretary of the county alliance; and that the secretary of every county alliance should have alphabetically arranged the names and post-office addresses of every member in the county. Then when any calls are issued, any sales to be effected, or purchases made, every one in the county in good standing will know it. The officers of the state alliance should be at least in weekly communication with county alliances, and county alliances in semi-weekly communication with subordinate alliances. And the National Alliance should always be in at least semi-monthly communication with state alliances. Strong as we are, we would have been much stronger had we been in closer relationship. In many localities subordinate alliances are willing, but they know not what to do from lack of information, support and encouragement. One help would be a weekly newspaper to every member, and made so interesting that everybody would not only read it, but long for its coming. With a clear definite purpose, complete co-operation, and wise counsels, a hundred fold more could be accomplished for all the farmers of the Nation. The Farmers' Alliance has the machinery. Let every member help to fire it up, keep it on the track, and continuously moving forward in the middle of the road.

27

Mann Page,

President Virginia State Farmers' Alliance, was born at Shelby, Gloucester co., Virginia, April 21, 1835. Only child of Thomas Nelson Page and Julia Randolph, his wife, he is a lineal descendant of Governor John Page of "Rosewell," and Gen. Thomas Nelson of Yorktown, Virginia, who were conspicuous for their patriotism during the war.

He was educated for, and entered business at the age of sixteen in Richmond, Va., and was a member of the firm Randolph & Page, commission merchants. At the breaking out of the war he declined an appointment from Governor Letcher as captain and quarter-master of the Provisional Army of Virginia, and enlisted as a private in Company F (in 1861) 21st Virginia Regiment, was commissioned Adjutant in 1862, and served through the war in the Brigade Division and Corps Staff of 2nd Army Corps, Army Northern Virginia.

On returning to Richmond after the war, he found his office books and accounts and all evidences of indebtedness due to him had been burned, and fearing that the condition of his health, on account of wounds received while in service, would not permit him to stand the close confinement of office life, he turned his attention to farming, devoting himself ever since to that calling, and has taken an active part in the various farming organizations. He was master of the Petersburgh District Grange, a member of the Farmers' Assembly of Virginia, and in 1880 was elected vice-president of the Virginia State Farmers' Alliance, and delegate to the St. Louis Convention which met December, 1889, and organized the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union. In August 1890, he was elected president of the State Alliance and delegate to the Supreme Council at Ocala; was re-elected president in August 1891 and. 1892, and a delegate to the meetings of the Supreme Council held in Indianapolis and Memphis.

At the meeting of the Supreme Council he was appointed president by President Loucks, and acted as such until the election of officers, when he was elected by a large and flattering vote a member of the Executive Committee of the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union.

Mr. Page has always been in politics a Democrat, and an active member of that party up to 1892. He was elected to the Legislature in 1875, and declined re-election in 1877; was nominated by the Democrats in 1883 for State senator, and in 1886 he was the Democratic nominee for Congress from the 4th District; in 1890 he declined to become the Democratic candidate for Congress, believing that his efficiency as president of the State Alliance would be impaired by his active participation in a political canvass in which he was the candidate, the Alliance being a strictly non-partisan body. In 1892 he declined to be nominated delegate-at-large from Virginia to the Convention held at Chicago that nominated Mr. Cleveland and adopted a platform antagonistic to the financial demands of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union.

Mr. Page holds that true democracy of the Jeffersonian and Andrew Jackson school, and should continue to oppose the establishment of national banks, and that silver should be restored to its relative position to gold which it held prior to 1873.

Mr. Page holds the position of Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Masons, A. F. & A. M., of Virginia, and is an active and devoted member of the Craft. He is a member of the Episcopal Church and a vestryman and treasurer of his parish.

28

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The Farmers' Friend Steel Frame Grain Drill is another simple, light and attractive machine. Made with runners, shoes, pin and spring hoes. Sizes from 8 to 22 hoe or runner.

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The Beck Hay Loader is the only one that will load equally well from swath or windrow, and put hay on the load in forkfuls. Easy of draft and operation. A pamphlet telling all about different Loaders mailed free.

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The Horse Shoe Lever Spring Tooth Harrow is the only one that regulates the depth without changing the suction of the teeth, and that carries the weight altogether on shoes. No joints in the frame. No loose teeth. No gathering of trash.

29

I. E. Dean.

(State Lecturer and Organizer, F. A. & I. U.)

Isaac Edwin Dean was born May 7, 1846, on a farm, near Blockville, town of Harmony, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. He was a twin. His twin brother, William Edward Dean, now lives in Sherman, Wexford Co., Mich.

In boyhood, mathematics was his fort and he always boasted that he never asked assistance to solve any mathematical problem, however difficult. Until the age of twelve his highest ambition was to graduate at West Point, but at this age he was crippled by accident, disqualifying him for entering that institution.

In 1864 he went into the oil country to earn money to pay expenses through Albany Law School and has been in the oil business, continuously, since. Has ever been one of the foremost men in every new oil field and gained such a reputation for judgment of wild cat wells and qualities of different sands that he has commanded the best salaries paid in this business. At Bullion, he was one of the firm of Shirely, Tack & Dean and with them organized the McCalmont oil company, of which he was General Manager for years. He was first in the Ohio field, and was interested in the organization of the Trenton Rock Oil Company.

Was one of the Butler electors for New York in 1884, and Elector-at-large for same state, in 1892, on the Weaver ticket. Has steadily refused to be a candidate for any office. He has been a continuous employer of labor, since 17 years of age, yet never had a strike. A thorough believer in organized labor, he joined his employees in labor organizations, where he was eligible.

Born and raised in a Republican family, he early took an interest in public matters, allying himself with the Democratic Party and continued to work and vote with them until he helped to elect Hon. S. J. Tilden President and saw Democratic leaders sell out, and, as he believed, with Tilden's consent, when he swore off and the next year, 1877, allied himself with the Currency Reform movement and has continued in that fight up to the present hour.

He was a delegate to the State Greenback Convention in 1877, which met at Williamsport; was delegate to Philadelphia Convention, in 1878, that nominated Samuel Mason for Governor. He supported William Armstrong in that Convention. Was delegate to the Toledo National Convention in 1878; National Greenback Convention, in Chicago, in 1880; National Convention, at Indianapolis, in 1884, that nominated Gen. B. F. Butler; was also a delegate to the Convention of July 4, 1883, at Chicago, under the Harper call. The Convention of Feb. 22, 1887, in Cincinnati, that organized the Union Labor Party. In this Convention he was Chairman of the Ohio Delegation. He has been a delegate to every Reform Convention, in his State or Nation, since he became interested in reform work, excepting the Cincinnati Convention of 1888 and the St. Louis Convention of 1892. He was Chairman of the New York delegation in Omaha Convention and cast a solid vote for Weaver and Field.

He was one of the leaders in the anti-monopoly movement of 1882 and 1883, and delegate to their National Convention that endorsed the nomination of Butler and West.

Became a member of the F. A. & I. U. in March, 1891, and was elected delegate to first State Council. Was appointed State Lecturer, by Executive Board, Aug. 18, 1891, and elected to same position following meeting of State Council and re-elected at Council Meeting, 1892. Has been delegate to every National Council, since becoming a member of the order. At Memphis, was elected as a member of the Executive Board, and, while a strong People's Party man, insists that the Alliance shall continue an Educational and Non-Partisan Institution.

30

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31

Col. M. D. Davie.

Montgomery D. Davie, son of Maj. Ambrose and Elizabeth Ann (Woodson) Davie, was born in Christian County, Kentucky, Aug. 16, 1827. His ancestors, who were among the earliest settlers of Kentucky, were descendants of the old and noted historic families of North Carolina and Virginia.

He remained at home till sixteen years of age, receiving such educational advantages as the common schools at that time gave, and assisting his father in the care and cultivation of his farms. He attended Yale College one year (1845) then in compliance with the desire of his father, he entered Princeton College, New Jersey, from which school his brother, Col. W. G. Davie, had already graduated, and from which he graduated in 1848.

Returning home he purchased some large flouring mills near Clarksville, Tenn., and also in connection with his brother Winston G. Davie engaged in the banking business, both of which operations he carried on extensively until the breaking out of the war, when he lost an immense amount of capital.

Returning to his native State he again gave his attention to farming and has since continued to follow that occupation. In 1855 he was elected a member of the Tennessee Legislature and served in that capacity for four years.

Col. Davie was married Sept. 12, 1850, to Miss Cornelia F. Leavell, only daughter of Lewis Leavell of Trenton, Ky. He is a member of the Clarksville Commander, Knights Templar.

In 1873 Mr. Davie was elected first master of the State Grange of Kentucky, which office he held two terms; was a delegate to the National Grange meeting at Chicago, and introduced at that meeting the resolution to make the office of Commissioner of Agriculture of the United States a Cabinet Office.

Joining the Agricultural Wheel in 1889, he was sent as a delegate to the State meeting at Bowling Green and assisted as one of the Committee of seven in consolidating the Wheel and Alliance of Kentucky. Is now serving his second term as President of both his County and Congressional District Alliance; was sent by his State as a delegate to Ocala and Indianapolis and was elected a member of the National Judiciary Committee. He attended the industrial conference at St. Louis Feb. 22, 1892, and served on the Committee on Platform and Resolution at that meeting.

Bro. Davie is a man in whom all reformers have confidence and, as he says, "His greatest desire is to live to see the reformation in politics, which he is now assisting to advocate, put into practical operation, so that special privileges will be granted to none, but equal rights to all."

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Advance Thresher Co.

33

Royal A. Southworth.

Royal A. Southworth was born in a farmhouse in Hillsdale co., Mich., Sept. 29, 1845. His father was one of Michigan's pioneers having emigrated to that State from Oswego, N. Y., when only nineteen years of age. His mother was also a pioneer, from Vermont when only nine years old, her father being the second white man to settle in Jonesville, Hillsdale co.

Mr. Southworth's early education was obtained at a log schoolhouse. His parents wishing to fit him for the bar, he attended Hillsdale College and while there decided the profession of law was at variance with his inclinations. He commenced teaching school at the age of seventeen, continuing in this vocation several years.

In the winter of 1867 he was married to Martha J. Witter a bright and enterprising teacher of Quincy, Michigan.

In 1875 he moved west with his family establishing a home thirteen miles north of Denver, Col., on land pre-empted from government. The new settlers suffered from grasshoppers, hail and drouth, experiencing all the trials of the poor but energetic western farmer. In a few years, however, the place was well stocked with fine horses, short-horn cattle, Berkshire swine, Merino sheep and Italian bees.

Mr. Southworth was born and educated a Republican and in 1879 was elected on that ticket to represent his district in the State Legislature. He was the most popular member of the house, having too much respect for labor and too little of aristocracy in his sympathies and manners, though he inspired the confidence and respect of his constituents with his intellectual and moral force, as well as for his integrity and patriotism.

He was a delegate to the county convention in 1886, and becoming convinced that it was controlled by corporations and operated in the interests of the moneyed power, he called to the Chair and resigned his seat in the convention, and at once commenced battling against corporate control of government.

The influence of farm life as well as love for humanity determined his later political course. Seeing American industry paralyzed, mortgages on nearly every home, the masses poverty stricken and universal discontent, he, with many other thinking men became convinced that financial legislation was needed, and that relief could never be obtained through the old parties. With severe mental suffering he turned his back to the Republican party whose principles were deeply rooted and fondly cherished as the only principles for a political party. The root of all his dissensions was monopoly, the curse which has hidden the sun of freedom from the eyes of the American people.

He was eagerly welcomed into the ranks of the despised toiler where by voice and influence he is striving with them for liberty.

In 1888 he was nominated for Congress by the Union Labor Party.

He has been a member of the State Board of Agriculture since 1881, is affiliated with the Farmers' Alliance, Knights of Labor and other industrial organizations, was for several years General Deputy of the Grange for Colorado, and built the order up from a low ebb to a strong and active organization, and is now State organizer for the Alliance of Colorado. He was a delegate to the Supreme Council of National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union which met at Indianapolis, November, 1891, to the great Labor Conference at St. Louis, in 1892, where he was chosen a member of the Platform Committee to represent Colorado, Delaware and Missouri, thus helping to frame America's second Constitution. Was also a delegate to Omaha Convention which adopted the People s Party platform July 4th, 1892 (made at St. Louis in February.) He was again delegate to the Supreme Council of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union at Memphis, Tenn., November, 1892.

The poor, needy and downtrodden have his warmest sympathy, and their cause his heartiest support. He is the sworn enemy of monopoly and plutocracy, and is living in the pursuit of truth and freedom, and laboring among America's wealth producers to whom he is devoting his life service.

39

National Meetings F. A. & I. U.

Merdian Meeting.

The first week in Dec. 1888 the National Alliance and the Agricultural Wheel held their regular annual meetings in the city of Meridian, Miss. The time and place was fixed by each organization with the purpose in view of consolidating these two organizations into one. Each organization had a separate hall, and held separate meetings for two or three days; but on the first day a joint committee had been appointed for the purpose of arranging a plan for consolidation. This committee made its report on Dec. 5, 1888, and the report was agreed to by both organizations; after which a joint meeting of the two National bodies was held. Some changes were made in the agreement for consolidation, and National officers elected for the consolidated organization for the ensuing year. The National body experienced some difficulty in harmonizing the different plans of work presented by the two organizations. The most serious question, and the one that very nearly prevented any consolidation taking place, was the admission of colored men into the organization. This question was finally settled by leaving it optional with each state, and providing that no colored delegates should be sent to the National meetings.

At the joint session of the Wheel and Alliance which ratified the consolidation agreement, a committee of 13 was appointed on Official Organ, of which F. G. Blood, a fraternal delegate from Illinois, was made chairman. This committee received several propositions, among which was one from several Alliance members from Texas, proposing to establish an entirely new paper in the city of Washington, D. C. The committee, by unanimous vote, left the matter of arranging for an official organ in the hands of the chairman; and the proposition submitted by the gentlemen from Texas, with some modifications, was accepted, and a contract drawn and signed by the gentlemen making the proposition and the chairman of the committee. This briefly is the history of establishing the National Economist at Washington, D. C.

The name adopted for the consolidated organization on report of the joint committee was "The National Alliance, Wheel and Co-operative Union of America." On request of F. G. Blood, this was changed to the "Farmers and Laborers' Union of America." The officers elected for the consolidated organization were: President, Evan Jones of Texas; Vice-President, Isaac McCracken of Arkansas; Secretary, A. E. Gardner of Tennessee; Treasurer, Linn Tanner of Louisiana. The joint session adjourned to meet in St. Louis at 10 a.m. on the first Tuesday in Dec. 1889.

St. LouisMeeting.

The first session of the Farmers' and Laborers' Union was held in St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 3, 1889. This meeting was held in the entertainment hall of the Exposition Building, which was kindly furnished by the Board of Trade of the city. Delegates were present from all the Southern States; and fraternal delegates from the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, the Knights of Labor and the Open Alliance were also in attendance. The provisions for consolidation of the Alliance and Wheel had been ratified by each of those organizations, and the separate organizations declared dissolved. Therefore the St. Louis meeting was called to order by the President of the consolidated body, Evan Jones, of Texas. At the meeting an effort was made to consolidate with the Open Alliance, which, for a time, promised to be a success. Each order had a committee to make necessary arrangements, and it seemed as though nothing could prevent the consolidation taking place. The delegates from the Open Alliance were apparently afraid of the superior power of the Farmers' and Laborers' Union, inconsequence of its being so much the stronger organization. They made several requests for modifications in the organic law of the order, which were all complied with.

40

The last request they made, and which they intimated was the last barrier in the way of organic Union, was that the name be changed from Farmers' and Laborers' Union, to the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union. This request was also complied with; but the committee on the part of the Open Alliance yet hesitated to enter into an agreement, and the National body proceeded to elect officers preparatory to adjournment. The Open Alliance delegates from Dakota and Kansas became so disgusted with the action of their committee, that they withdrew from their organization and entered the consolidated body. At this meeting officers were elected as follows: President, L. L. Polk, North Carolina; Vice-President, B. H. Clover of Kansas; Secretary, J. H. Turner, Georgia. President Polk and Secretary Turner at once opened their offices in Washington, D. C.

To follow the educational features of the organization, we give the demands adopted at the St. Louis meeting, which were not only adopted by the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, but were also signed by T. V. Powderly, A. W. Wright and Ralph Beaumont, officially, for the Knights of Labor.

The demands referred to are as follows: —

1. That we demand the abolition of national banks, and the substitution of legal tender treasury notes in lieu of national bank notes, issued in sufficient volume to do the business of the country on a cash system; regulating the amount needed on a per capita basis, as the business interests of the country expand; and that all money issued by the government shall be legal tender in payment of all debts, both public and private.

2. That we demand that Congress shall pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the dealing in futures of all agricultural and mechanical productions; preserving a stringent system of procedure in trials as shall secure the prompt conviction, and imposing such penalties as shall secure the most perfect compliance with the law.

3. That we demand the free and unlimited coinage of silver.

4. That we demand the passage of laws prohibiting the alien ownership of land, and that Congress take early steps to devise some plan to obtain all lands now owned by aliens and foreign syndicates; and that all lands now held by railroad and other corporations, in excess of such as are actually used and needed by them, be reclaimed by the government, and held for actual settlers only.

5. Believing in the doctrine of "equal rights to all and special privileges to none," we demand that taxation, national or state, shall not be used to build up one interest or class at the expense of another.

We believe that the money of the country should be kept as much as possible in the hands of the people, and hence we demand that all revenues, national, state or county, shall be limited to the necessary expenses of the government, economically and honestly administered.

6. That Congress issue a sufficient amount of fractional paper currency to facilitate exchange through the medium of the United States mail.

7. We demand that the means of communication and transportation shall be owned by and operated in the interest of the people, as is the United States postal system.

The most important act of the St. Louis meeting was the adoption of the sub-Treasury plan for putting money into circulation at a low rate of interest, at just such times and places as would meet the actual requirements of business transactions.

Ocala Meeting.

The second annual meeting of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, was held at Ocala, Florida, beginning Dec. 2, 1890. This is among the most important meetings of the organization, and memory of it will yet be fresh in the minds of the delegates who attended it, when other meetings are entirely forgotten. The meeting itself was largely attended and enthusiastic. No important change was made in the organic laws of the organization, except to incorporate the "sub-Treasury" system into the demands; and the changing of the demands for Government ownership of lines of transportation and communication, to a demand for Government control; and, if this proved impractical, to Government ownership. With these exceptions, the demands adopted at St. Louis were reindorsed. To show the unanimity of opinion concerning the financial necessities of the people, let us add, that on the first proposition of the demands adopted at Ocala, which was for the abolition of National Banks, and the adoption of the sub-Treasury, or some better system in their

41

stead, only 10 votes out of a total of 89 were cast in opposition. These 10 votes were divided as follows: Mississippi, 1; Illinois, 2; Missouri, 4; and Tennessee, 3. These three votes from Tennessee did not represent opposition to the proposed demands, but were cast in the negative because of some technical wording of the demand.

The only change in officers at this meeting, was the election of J. F. Willitts of Kansas as National Lecturer to succeed Ben. Terrell of Texas. Fraternal delegates from the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association and the Knights of Labor were admitted to the meetings of the Supreme council, and heartily endorsed the demands adopted. At this meeting the initiatory steps were taken for the formation of a federation of industrial organizations, and this effort finally resulted in the organization of an Independent political party at Omaha, Neb., July 4, 1892, with the Ocala demands as the basis of its platform.

We have already mentioned that the delegates who attended the Ocala meeting would long remember the pleasures of their visit to the land of fruit and flowers. When the Supreme Council was invited to hold its annual meeting in Florida, the hospitality of the people in this state was little understood. A short time before the meeting many delegates were gratefully surprised at receiving passes from their nearest point on the Louisville & Nashville, and some of the other Southern railroad lines, to Florida and return. While at Ocala no pains were spared, on the part of the citizens of that enterprising city, to make the stay of the delegates as pleasant as possible. Carriages were furnished for drives, receptions were held, public demonstrations of many kinds were furnished, hotel bills were paid, and orange and lemon groves were for the time given over to the fruit hungry people. Excursions were arranged to points of interest; notable among which was "Silver Springs," the "Phosphate Quarries," and the "Cedar Mills" at Homasassa. After the adjournment of the Supreme Council almost the entire delegation started on a two weeks, pleasure trip, which covered the points of interest in the state. A special train was furnished free by the different lines of railroads, and the trip took in such noted points of interest as Tampa Bay, the St. Cloud Sugar Mills, Indian River, De Leon Springs, St. Augustine, Jacksonville, Tallahassee, Pensacola, etc. No such grand excursion had ever before been given to representatives of wealth producing people as this, and Senator Mann, of Florida, will long be remembered with the kindliest of feelings by all who attended this meeting as the moving spirit who made such an enjoyable trip possible. To Hon. J. F. Dunn, of Ocala, was largely due the courtesies extended by that city.

Indianapolis Meeting.

The Third Annual Session of the Supreme Council of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union was held at Indianapolis, Ind., beginning Nov. 17, 1891. At this meeting no important changes were made in the organic laws of the organization, and the old officers were re-elected. Thirty-three states were represented by delegates, and reports from all parts of the country were encouraging to the order. This meeting marks the "high water" point of the organization up to the present time. At this meeting delegates were chosen to attend the Conference of Industrial Organizations, to be held in St. Louis, Feb. 22, 1892, and much enthusiasm was manifested by the delegates at the prospect of soon being able to affiliate in a political movement that would give them an opportunity of expressing their views at the ballot box.

The Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association held its annual meeting in Indianapolis at the same time, and an effort was made to consolidate, or confederate, the two organizations; but the same causes interfered as did in the attempt at consolidation of the two Alliance organizations at the St. Louis meeting; and while the rank and file of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association were perhaps at that time in favor of either a close confederation, or of organic union, the officers of the organization, for some reason, stood in the way of its accomplishment. The Knights of Labor sent fraternal delegates with assurances of co-operation along the lines of political reform, and the Patrons of Industry requested that delegates be sent to their next national meeting, for the purpose of coming to a better understanding regarding needed reforms.

42

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Plow

Gentlemen: — I consider your Spading Harrow one of the very best tools of its kind on the market. While it cuts sods and pulverizes the soil it does not tear up sod. It makes a firm seed bed and when followed by a smoothing harrow leaves the ground in excellent condition for any crop.
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Ass't Prof. of Agriculture.

East-View Farm, Oxford, Butler Co., Ohio.
Dec. 9, 1892. THE BRYAN PLOW Co.,
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Gentlemen: — I presume that you would like a report as to how the harrow works I cannot say too much in praise of this implement or its work. It is gotten up on the best plan, and does the best work of any Cutting or Disc Harrow I have ever seen. I have a good Climax Disc but the Drader dots so much better work that I feel as though I can hardly do without it.
Respectfully, WALDO F. BROWN.

The Bryan Plow Co., Bryan, O. Michigan Agricultural College (Farm Department) October 5th. 1892.

GENTLEMEN: — I consider your Spading Harrow one of the very best tools of its kind on the market. While it cuts sods and pulverizes the soil it does not tear up sod. It makes a firm seed bed and when followed by a smoothing harrow leaves the ground in excellent condition for any crop.
Yours truly, E. A. BURNETT, B. S., Assistant Prof. of Agriculture.

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JOS. F. MEYER, Houston, Texas. R..N. BROWN, 1730 N. 21st St., Philadelphia, Pa.
NEBRASKA-MOLINE PLOW CO., Omaha, Neb.

43

One important feature of the Indianapolis meeting was the prominence at that time of an Auxiliary Organization to the national body, consisting of the State Business Agents. Beginning at the Qcala meeting, a New Jersey corporation, known as the National Union Co., had succeeded, in winning over a number of the State Business Agents; and others, who had not approved of their proposed methods of business, were bitterly opposed to their plan. This precipitated quite a struggle in the Business Agents' meeting, and was the subject of much comment, in both the Alliance and metropolitan press at that time. The result of this misunderstanding was to sever all connections between the National Supreme Council and the State Business Agents' Association.

Memphis Meeting.

The Fourth Annual meeting of the Supreme Council of the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union was held at Memphis, Tenn., beginning Nov. 15, 1892. Twenty-eight states were represented at this meeting, and much business of importance was transacted. The demands adopted at Ocala and St. Louis were reindorsed, and officers elected as follows: President, H. L. Loucks, of South Dakota; Vice-President, Marion Butler, of North Carolina; Secretary-Treasurer, L. K. Taylor, of Tennessee; National Lecturer, Ben Terrell, of Texas. Much dissatisfaction was expressed at this meeting regarding the actions of J. F. Tillman, Secretary of the National Executive Committee, and manager of the Alliance Lecture Bureau, during the preceding political campaigns and as a means of avoiding such complications in the future the law regarding the election of the Executive Committee was changed, and all the members were made to be elected annually; the committee to consist of five instead of three, with the National President as ex-officio Chairman. This change relieved the organization of the services of J. F. Tillman, whose term as member of the National Committee had not yet expired; and a new Committee was elected as follows: Mann Page of Virginia, L. Leonard of Missouri, I. E. Dean of New York, H. C. Demming of Pennsylvania, and H. L. Loucks, ex-officio Chairman.

The Memphis meeting was in many respects an important one; not because of the number of its delegates present, nor any changes in the measures to be pursued, but because it marks that period in the history of the organization where it will either take on a new growth, which will result in the execution of its demands into laws, or it will pass out of existence, and take its place among the struggles of the people for just and equitable laws. Whichever is the final result, the organization can, in no sense, be looked upon as a failure. Already its influence has been felt in every state in the Nation, as well as in National affairs at the seat of Government. It has brought about a better understanding of our economic system among the rank and file of the rural voters, and has had a tendency to break down partisan prejudice, and establish in its place a devotion to principle, regardless of party, which cannot fail to have a lasting effect upon the future politics of our country.

Our account of the Memphis meeting would not be complete without mentioning the trouble at that place regarding the National organ and its editor. Dr. C. W. Macune had, since the movement first became prominent in Texas, been considered one of its ablest champions, and had repeatedly been honored with positions of trust by the Supreme Council. As Chairman of the Executive Committee and Editor of the Official Organ some acts of his during the campaign preceding the Memphis meeting were severely criticised by members of the order generally, and by the Alliance papers and officers with scarcely an exception. Very little effort was made by Dr. Macune to explain or justify his actions, except an attempt on the part of the delegates to force his election as President of the National body for the purpose, they claimed, of showing the implicit confidence of the order in the integrity of Dr. Macune. Before the election took place a heated argument was engaged in, which finally resulted in the withdrawal of Dr. Macune's name from before the convention, as well as the withdrawal of the Doctor himself from further participation in the affairs of the Council, and from the order. (Page 19 official proceedings.)

We do not feel disposed to hazard any opinion as to the guilt or innocence of Dr. Macune upon any of the charges made at the Memphis meeting. The matter at this writing has not been decided at the hands of any duly authorized tribunal.

44

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45

State Organizations.

Arkansas.

By L. H. MOORE.

The first Alliances in this State were organized by A. R. London, of Scott Co., who first became a member of the order in Texas. This was before the union of the Alliance of Texas with the Union of Louisiana created the National organization, and it was the intention to organize a State Alliance similar to that of Texas. But when the National Alliance and Co-operative Union was formed, and sent as organizers into this State John W. Baker, Wm. Davenport and D. B. Hale, it was decided to enlist under that banner. A State charter was promised the Alliances already formed as soon as they had organized the required number of counties demanded by the constitution. The work was prosecuted diligently and in a few weeks a demand was made for a State Charter, but they were informed by E. B. Warren, secretary National Alliance and Co-operative Union, that a State charter had already been issued for Arkansas. Investigation showed that the Agricultural Wheel, which originated in this State and had spread over a large portion of it, had negotiated with the National officer for consolidation with the Alliance, and had been given by them a State Alliance charter and charge of the Alliance work in the State, including the Alliances already organized. This course caused dissatisfaction with the sub-Alliances, and many ceased working; while the rest, refusing to recognize the authority of the Wheel, formed a State Alliance under the name of Farmers' Co-operative Alliance of Arkansas, securing a charter from the State of Arkansas.

This order was, as a matter of course, entirely independent of the National Alliance, having its own secret signs and passwords. Under the leadership of G. E. James, as president, and W. B. W. Heartsill, secretary, it rapidly increased in the western part of the State, soon numbering a membership of 8,000.

In the meanwhile the Agricultural Wheel neglecting to report or pay dues to the National Alliance, that body revoked the State Alliance charter it had given them, thus leaving the National Alliance and Co-operative Union no representation in Arkansas.

Some time in 1888 W. S. Grant, of Sevier county, secured a commission from the National Association to organize a State Alliance in Arkansas, and at once commenced work, soon securing Alliances enough to apply for a State charter, which was granted in 1889, with W. S. Grant, president, and E. C. Humphrey, secretary.

Organized labor among the farmers of Arkansas now stood as follows: An Independent Alliance in Western Arkansas, the National Alliance and Co-operative Union in Southern Arkansas, the Agricultural Wheel in East and Northeast Arkansas.

To complicate matters a rivalry among organizers was fast leading to dissensions between the three bodies that boded no good to any of the Orders.

In 1889 the union of National Alliance and National Wheel was accomplished at St. Louis. It was thought this would settle misunderstandings between the Alliance and Wheel in Arkansas, but as both bodies had delegates at that meeting and both were equally recognized, the breach was only widened. L. H. Moore represented the Alliance at that meeting, and upon return to Arkansas, acting under instructions of W. S. Grant and E. R. Arnold, State organizer of the Alliance, commenced negotiations with the Executive Committee of the Independent Alliance to unite these two Orders. This was accomplished in February, 1890, at Greenwood, Ark., with Paul T. Davidson president, W. B. W. Heartsill secretary.

This still left two rival orders in the State, the Wheel in the meanwhile having adopted the name of Farmers' and Laborers' Union.

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Both Orders sent delegates to the National meeting at Ocala, in 1890.

A committee was appointed (see minutes of that body) to arrange plan of uniting the Alliance with F. & L. U. in Arkansas, and in pursuance of that plan President Polk called a joint meeting of both Orders at Little Rock, Feb. 14, 1891. This meeting was largely attended, and harmonious throughout, resulting in uniting the Alliance and Union under the name of Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, of Arkansas, Paul T. Davidson president, J. W. Dollison secretary.

For a while the growth of the order was rapid, but the excitement attendant upon an unusually heated political campaign, State and National, was at hand, and although the Alliance of Arkansas has strictly preserved its attitude as a non-partisan organization, its growth has been naturally checked by these unusual disturbances. In speaking of the order in Arkansas as non-partisan, I do not wish to be misunderstood. It has emphatically endorsed the demands of the National Alliance made at St. Louis in 1889, and re-affirmed at Ocala a year later. Its work in this direction has been educational, however, the order not endorsing any political party, trusting to the intelligence of its members after a full and fair discussion of the demands of the order to lead them to vote for that party or those men that seem best calculated to enact those demands into laws. A clause in its State constitution prohibits any Alliance placing a political ticket in the field, and its county and State Alliance officers are required, before running for State or National political offices, to resign their position in the Alliance as such officers. Not but what political reform is conceded a necessity, but it is believed that the battle in that direction should be fought entirely outside the ranks.

The Order has a wide-awake paper, the Arkansas Farmer, published at Little Rock by J. B. Suttler. After Jan. 1, 1893, this paper will be furnished every male member over 21 years old, with no extra charge save the regular annual dues, $1.05. In addition there are in the State several county papers devoted to the reform movement, and the National Economist has a large circulation in the State.

In the way of co-operation in business little has been attempted upon a large scale, although the order has an agent connected with the Exchange at Memphis. Many of the counties, however, have their Alliance business houses, while Alliance country stores are to be found in many parts of the State, with a growing interest in this part of the work.

Socially and morally the influence of the order is showing itself wherever introduced, and is breaking down the wall of political prejudice wonderfully, considering the short time it has been at work here. Perhaps, however, the greatest results it has shown are in the intelligence with which leading questions of the day are discussed, and the professional politician has to be guarded in the statements he makes his hearers. As one of them expressed it: "A few days ago I went out on the mountain to talk politics with an old farmer, and found that he knew more about the issues of the day than I did."

You may safely put it down that the Alliance has come to Arkansas to stay. The president is D. E. Barker, Barkada, and secretary L.H. Moore, Alston.

California.

By J. S. BARBEE.

Col. J. S. Barbee went to California in July, 1889, where he worked nearly sis months before succeeding in forming the first Alliance on the Pacific coast, which was at Summerland, Santa Barbara Co., April 11, 1890. On the 3rd of May following, with delegates from Summerland, No. 1; Monticello, No. 2; Hope, No. 3; Cathedral Oaks, No. 4; Dos Pueblos, No. 5; Lompone, No. 6; Santa Rita, No. 7; and Goleta, No. 8, in the city of Santa Barbara the first County Alliance was formed. Following this (in order as organized) was San Luis, Obrepo Co., Monterey, Fresno, Tulare, Ventura

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Los Angeles, Yolo, San Benito, Santa Clara, Merced, Stanislaus, Colusa, and Santa Cruz; delegates from these 14 counties met in the city of San Jose, Nov. 20-22, and organized the State Alliance of California. At that time the membership was confined to 73 Sub-Alliances, with a membership of less than 5000. To-day we have 557 Sub-Alliances with a membership of about 20,000, and the 14 Counties increased to 38, with 4 other counties ready to apply for Charter.

The next State Alliance will have delegates from every County in the State, with a membership double that of to-day. Marion Cannon, of Ventura, was made President, and C. W. Pedlar, of Gilroy, Sec'y. Cannon was re-elected one year later by acclamation, and Col. Jos. Barbee Sec'y. Their last yearly meeting was held at Sacramento, which was large and harmonious. Marion Cannon was the P. P. Candidate for Congress, and so sure was his election that he was not allowed to be voted for as President, — and indeed he would not have accepted a "Third Term" anyway.

The former State Lecturer, J. L. Gilbert, of Reedley, Fresno Co., was chosen as President; C. W. Thresher, of Gridley, Butte Co., as Vice-President; Jos. S. Barbee, Los Angeles, Sec'y-Treasurer; J. M. Moore, San Francisco, Business Manager; Burdette Cornell, Summerland, State Lecturer.

Georgia.

Written by A. W. IVEY.

About the first of April, 1887, two organizers from the National Alliance entered Georgia for the purpose of agitating the minds of farmers upon the principles enunciated by the Alliance in Texas J. B. Wilks, of Red River, Texas, entered Troup Co., Oswald Wilson, Thomas Co. Antioch Lodge, of Troup Co., was the first Farmers' Alliance organized in the State. From this beginning the work increased rapidly over the State. During the Fall of this year a call was made for a State convention to meet at Fort Valley for the purpose of perfecting a State organization. Said call was answered on the 20th day of Dec. 1887. At 10 o'clock, A. M., the delegates and friends of the movement assembled in Gray's Hall, Fort Valley, and proceeded to perfect the State organization. J. R. Roop, of Carroll Co., was elected temporary Chairman; R. L. Burk, Secretary. Call for counties was called; seventeen responding with a representation of fifty-one delegates, they representing a membership of about nine thousand.

Mr. Elliott of Texas was introduced, who gave a very concise and brief talk on the benefits of the order, and was unanimously elected permanent chairman of that body. All committees were duly appointed, and entered at once upon their duties. Constitution was adopted, and said convention proceeded to an election of Officers of the State Alliance: R. H. Jackson, President, Franklin Co.; J.S.C. Glenn, Vice-President, Thomas Co.; R. L. Burks, Secretary; J. L. Daniel, Treasurer, Sumter Co.; J. T. Green, Let., Carroll Co.; J. W. Taylor, A.L.; Edgar Stewart, D. K.; S. J. Harper, A. D. K.; N. C. Bridges, S. A. Up to time of State organization one hundred and eighty-seven Sub-Alliances had been chartered by the National Alliance.

President Jackson and Organizer J. H. Turner entered upon their duties with much zeal. Sub-organizers were appointed in many counties in the State, and they making the same effort to organize the people, the work progressed very rapidly. The next State meeting was held Aug. 21, 1888, with 80 counties represented with properly accredited delegates. R. H. Jackson was re-elected President, L. F. Livingston, Vice-President. R. L. Burks was re-elected sec'y, and held office till the annual meeting in August, 1891. Those elected on the Executive Committee were F. Corput, I. J. Stephens, A. W. Ivey, W. T. Godwin, J. B. Richards. Godwin was elected Treasurer, and W. A. Broughton was elected in his stead on the Committee. Richards tendered his resignation as committee man. A. F. Pope was appointed as his successor.

The Judiciary Committee elect was W. R. Gorman, L. H. F. Peacock, W. R. Everett. The above Executive Committee were re-elected till the State meeting, 1891. W. R. Gorman was elected on the Executive Committee to fill vacancy made by Ivey's election to the Secretary's office.

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The third meeting of the State Alliance found L. F. Livingston Acting-President, Jackson having resigned his office as President. At this meeting Livingston was elected President and has held the office till date.

During the second and third years of the order the State was considerably exercised over the Jute Bagging Trust, and I may say Georgia did her quota towards breaking prices of said trust.

The meeting of 1890 found Georgia fully represented in the Alliance movement. One hundred and thirty-four counties out of one hundred and thirty-seven were properly represented by delegates. Georgia's membership at this meeting numbered 71,567. Males 55,260; females 16,307.

In the year of 1890 the Alliance men of Georgia elected upon the Alliance ticket in the State six (6) out of ten (10) Congressmen; one hundred and forty-five representatives out of one hundred and seventy-five to the legislature.

Numerically our strength has not increased, but the principles of our order have continued to deepen and widen till they have taken such hold upon the lives of our people that they are now standing demanding, and intend voting for our principles in State and National legislation until the laboring masses have equal rights and liberty from oppression. Our Alliance men over the State are managing largely cotton warehouses and weighing their cotton. We have an exchange business house in Atlanta which is doing a very good business in adjacent counties. Railroad transportation is so high and careless that we find the business exchange does not reach the people beneficially.

Georgia sends greeting to the East, West, North and South, asking co-operation in the great reform movement.

Kentucky.

Written by B. F. DAVIS.

The first Farmers' Alliance was organized in Kentucky in December, 1886, by F. T. Rogers, a native of Trigg Co., Ky. Brother Rogers had been living in Texas some time, and in December, as above stated, he was sent from there by the State Alliance of Texas as an organizer, and through his exertions mainly there were organized in the counties of Trigg, Caloway and Marshall thirteen Sub-Alliances during the winter and spring. In May, 1887, J. H. Tillman was sent by the National Alliance and Co-operative Union into southern Kentucky, and J. L. Quicksall was sent at the same time to eastern Kentucky as organizer. The brethren soon became discouraged on account of the apathy with which the people received their admonitions. Bro. Tillman returned to Texas; Bro. Quicksall, having been born and raised in Morgan Co., was prone to linger around his native heath, which he did for three months, and finally succeeded in making two organizations, the first at Pine Grove school-house in Morgan Co., and one at Bethel school-house in Wolfe Co. He then appointed B. F. Davis as his deputy, and returned to Texas. Bro. Davis took up the work where Bro. Quicksall left off, and after being commissioned by the National Alliance, succeeded in organizing many counties in eastern Kentucky, and establishing the Alliance on a firm footing there.

In pursuance of instructions from President Macune, of the National Alliance, Bro. Davis made a call in March, 1888, for delegates from all the Sub-Alliances in the State to meet at Ezel, Morgan Co., and organize a State Alliance. This call was responded to by a majority of the Alliances in Kentucky, and when the morning of June 5th came, the time appointed, the delegates met and found themselves confronted by the door of Pine Grove school-house (the place of meeting) securely locked against them, and the key could not be found. But Bro. Quicksall, being-one of the school trustees, found a way to open the door, and the State Alliance was organized with great unanimity, J. E. Quicksall, of Ezel, Ky., being elected president, and B. F. Davis, of Ezel, Ky., secretary. In August, 1888, delegates from the Agricultural Wheel met with the Alliance at its first annual session, and a consolidation of the two bodies was effected by selecting S. B. Erwin president and B. F. Davis secretary. Bro. Erwin was president of the Kentucky Wheel and Bro. Davis secretary

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of the State Alliance. This consolidated body took the name of the Kentucky State Farmers' and Laborers' Union. Lexington, Ky., was chosen as the next place of meeting.

The first annual meeting of the Farmers' and Laborers' Union convened at the Court House in Lexington, Ky., Nov. 10, 1890, and after the transaction of much important business, S. B. Erwin, of Clinton, Ky., was re-elected president, and B. F. Davis, of Ezel, Ky., re-elected secretary.

The growth of the Alliance in Kentucky has been steady and of a healthy nature, and much and lasting good has been the fruit and out-growth of the labors of the faithful workers in the cause of right and justice. May this movement of the common people move on and on until right and justice prevail over might and the greed of monopoly.

New York.

By Geo. A. Scott.

The Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union was first introduced into New York State by D. F. Allen, of Richburg, N. Y., who received a commission and instructions from the National officers at Washington, D. C.

Bro. Allen was an energetic man, who had the principles of the order at heart, and he immediately began the work of organizing and instituting the first Sub-Alliance at Richburg, April 26, 1890.

A few weeks later Geo. A. Scott, of Belmont, took the field as an organizer, and shortly after this W. J. Brotherton, of Canisteo, took up the work. These three with a few local workers pushed the work against the great opposition, and on April 23, 1891, the State organization was formed at Hornellsville, N. Y., there being at the time twelve counties organized. National President L. L. Polk and National Lecturer Willits were present at the organization of the State Council.
At this time Harvey Arnold, of Arcade, was elected president, Chas. Moore, of Canisteo, vice-president; Geo. A. Scott, Belmont, secretary; F. E. Henderson, Rose, treasurer, and W. C. Warner, of Yorkshire Centre, lecturer.

Before the work of organizing had been fairly arranged and the work commenced, Bro. Warner resigned his position as State Lecturer, and thus was the work of reaching into new territory retarded.

From that time until now the work of organizing has been much slower than at any time before the organization of the State Council.

November 4, 1891, the second meeting of the State Council was called, and E. F. Dibble, of Honeoye Falls, was elected State president; I. W. Gale, Wales, vice-president; Geo. A. Scott, Belmont, was re-elected secretary; F. E. Henderson, Rose, was re-elected treasurer, and I. E. Dean, of Honeoye Falls, was elected lecturer.

The membership at that time was about 10,000 and is about the same now (June 15, 1892.)
The number of charters issued to Sub-Alliances in the State is 430, and to County Alliances is 16, while the work is now started in five counties in which there are no County Alliances yet formed.

The members in the State are united in the demands of the Ocala platform, and besides are laboring for many needed reforms in the State.

Since the Ocala platform is opposed by the monopolists and political leaders of both old political parties, and New York State is the home of about 1,500 millionaires, and political leaders almost without number, the organization meets more opposition perhaps at their hands than in any other State.

Taxation in this State is one of the many wrongs that needs immediate correction, and is a prominent issue in the minds of the Alliance people, for statistical reports show that there is as much or more personal property in the State as there is real estate, while in 1890 real estate paid 90 per

51

cent of all taxes raised during the year. To such an extent do mortgages escape taxation that the Alliance members demand that they be assessed as real estate, and that the tax be paid where the property lies.

A bill known as the listing bill, which makes every man his own assessor, meets with quite general favor among the membership.

These measures have both been brought before the State Legislature, and both have either died in the hands of the Committee or been defeated in a vote of one or both Houses of the State Congress.

The indebtedness of our farmers is almost beyond comprehension, and in the last State Legislature a bill was introduced to reduce the legal rate of interest from six to five per cent. This was well argued by its friends, and the opposition to it was light, but it was never reported by the Committee into whose hands it was placed.

The Alliance members also demand a uniform system of text books for use in the common schools of the State.

Another important issue to the tax-payers of the State is that regarding the Erie canal. This is one of the greatest sources of expense in the State, and is of little or no benefit to the people within the State. While it is a source of convenience and saving to the people of other States, and of expense to the tax-payers of New York State, the Alliance members demand that it be owned and operated by the general government. These with many others are the demands of the Alliance people of the State, and are ably championed by the Alliance Leader, the official organ of the Alliance in the State.

While the work in the State has not been so great as might be desired, it has so educated all within its reach that they are clamoring for justice at the hands of both State and nation, and are demanding equal opportunities with their fellow men of other occupations.

North Carolina.

(Written by W. S. BARNES, State Secretary.)

The North Carolina Farmers' State Alliance was organized October 4, 1887, at Rockingham, N. C. by N. H. C. Elliott, Lecturer and Organizer of the National Farmer's Alliance and Co-operative Union of America. Eight counties were represented with 132 sub-Alliances in the State. Capt. S. B. Alexander, present member of Congress from the 6th district, was its first President; Thaddeus Ivey was first Vice-President, and his is the first name enrolled by the Alliance in North Carolina; L. L. Polk was elected Secretary, and his paper, The Progressive Farmer, was made organ of the State Alliance; J. D. Allen was elected Treasurer.

The second state meeting was held in Raleigh, August 14, 1888. There were 52 counties represented by delegates, with 1018 sub-Alliances. S. B. Alexander was re-elected President, Thaddeus Ivey Vice-President, L. L. Polk Secretary, and J. D. Allen Treasurer.

The third annual meeting, August 13, 1889, was at Fayetteville. There were 89 counties represented by delegates, and 1816 sub-Alliances. At this session Bro. Elias Carr was elected President, Bro. S. B. Alexander having served two terms the limit allow by the Constitution. In the winter of this year Bro. L. L. Polk was elected President of the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union at St. Louis, Mo. In his place, as Secretary of State Alliance, E. C. Beddingfield was appointed.

The fourth annual meeting of the Alliance convened at Asheville, August 12, 1890. Elias Carr was re-elected President, and E. C. Beddingfield elected Secretary.

The Legislature, which was largely in favor of the Alliance reforms, met in January, 1891, and a Railroad Commission bill was passed, and E. C. Beddingfield, our State Alliance Secretary,

52

was made one of the commissioners. On March 28 W. S. Barnes was appointed in his stead.

The fifth annual meeting was held at Morehead City, August 11, 1891. All the counties of the State, except Dare were represented, though said county had been organized with 5 sub-Alliances. 2221 sub-Alliances and 96 county Alliances had been organized to this date, and only 55 sub-Alliances had surrendered their charters. The members of the most of these had joined other, subs.

The business fund, which was raised during the years of '88 and '89, amounting to nearly $35,000, had been kept in the hands of a trustee. The fund was raised by members of the order and cannot be drawn out unless the organization should go down. The trustee is a bonded officer. The Agent, W. H. Worth, elected in 1889, has been simply a purchasing agent for the brethren, and, from August, 1889, to August, 1891, did a business of $500,000. The fund remains in hand — not a dollar has been lost.

The Business Agent has saved to the people of the State thousands of dollars.

At the last State meeting Marion Butler was elected President, and W. S. Barnes Secretary.

While the Alliance does not number as many as it had at one period of its existence, it is stronger than it ever has been, for its members are better educated on the economic questions pertaining to its welfare. The great cause of falling off in numbers is from the fact that the people are so poor that they are unable to pay their dues, which is caused by the low price of all farm products, and the present financial system of our government. Yet the Alliance principles have permeated nearly every farmer and workingman throughout the State. It has done a noble work for our people.

Ohio.

BY HARRY E. PARKER.

The first sub-Alliance in the State was organized in Cheshire, a small town in Gallia Co., July 10, 1890, by John T. Jones, a national organizer. This Alliance was formed with twenty charter members, of whom Geo. W. Bing, a prominent and influential farmer, was chosen president; Eugene A. Bing, secretary, and Alva Agee, lecturer.

During the fall of this year the growth extended into different sections of the State. The first county Alliance formed was Franklin, Oct. 8, 1890.

The State Alliance was organized at Columbus, April 16 and 17, 1891, by the National president, our lamented L. L. Polk, assisted by National Lecturer Willits. A harmonious organization was effected with the following officers: President, Alva Agee; vice-president, H. W. Loomis; secretary, Harry E. Parker; treasurer, Albert Sperry; lecturer, A. D. Foster. The work was pushed with energy, but a great deal of the State being already occupied by the Grange, Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, National Farmers' Alliance and Agricultural School, and Patrons of Industry, our growth, while good, has not been so exceedingly rapid as in some of the States. Harmony and good feeling exist between these different orders, and it is thought a union will be effected with some of them in the near future.

After the State meeting an aggressive campaign of education in Alliance principles was inaugurated, which met with encouragement, and aroused great feeling among the farmers of the State. Such interest was manifested in Alliance doctrine that Federal office holders became alarmed lest their corrupt ways be exposed, and commenced a systematic opposition to the Order, and resorted to all kinds of malicious, false and slanderous statements concerning the officials and work of the Alliance — every charge of which has been proven utterly false and without foundation.

The difficulties in the way of organizing were increased by the fact of the People's Party being organized at Cincinnati in May, 1891, and adopting Alliance principles as its platform. Most of

53

the membership felt duty bound to support the new party. This threatened revolution in the home of Sherman and McKinley against old party ties created consternation among political leaders, and the word was passed down to "crush the Alliance," as it was held to be responsible for this uprising of the wealth producers. Then commenced one of the bitterest contests, ever fought in the State. Monopoly poured in money like water. The strength of the federal administration was pitted against the feeble, young order, with nothing but truth and justice and earnestness to uphold it.

This contest, as would be supposed, greatly retarded organization. The result, on the surface, might seem to indicate that but little was accomplished, yet seed has been sown that in time will reap a rich harvest. Throughout the unequal struggle, unmindful of slanders and all attempts to divert attention from the vital issues, our members stood firmly by their principles.

On re-assembling at Columbus in November, 1891, it was found that the number of sub-Alliances had almost doubled. Every one felt encouraged and prepared for future effort. Alva Agee declining, for personal reasons, to serve a second term as president, Rev. A. K. Murphy was chosen to that position. Continued sickness in his family forced him to resign in April following, since which the place has been ably filled by vice-president Loomis.

At present there are between 400 and 500 Alliances in the State. The growth is constant and steady, though at no time large. Much has been done in the way of study of economic questions, and thus dispelling prejudice. The business department includes both the contract system and the store system, and has saved many dollars to the members. The State agent is extending the work into all sections of the State. Co-operative buying and selling is becoming the rule among the members. By careful management it is hoped the Ohio State Alliance may be one of the solid and permanent orders of the country.

Oregon.

Written by W. W. MYERS.

The Oregon Alliance and Industrial Union was organized by Alonzo Wardall, of South Dakota, at Portland, Oregon, July, 1891.

The prime movers in starting the work forward in Oregon were Nathan Pierce and W. A. Sample of Umatilla Co., Funk, of Lake, T. H. McGill, of Portland, W. W. Myers, of Clackormas Co., S. H. Holt, of Jackson Co., and others. The organizers were M. V. Rork, W. A. Sample, S. H. Holt, T. Birnbairn, F. Nighswander and others. Locally organization began in Feb'y, '91, and in July the State Alliance was organized with seventeen counties out of thirty in the State, with one hundred and seventy-five subs.

The organization now is in nearly every county. Three hundred charters issued, and fifty counties contain several thousand members. The Independent vote rose from 3,000 to 15,000 in 2 years in consequence of the education.

The officers of the Alliance, Nathan Pierce of Umatilla, president; Jas. Bruce of Benton and S. H. Holt of Jackson, vice-presidents; W. W. Myers sec'y-treasurer; executive board, W. H. Spaught, Geo. W. Weeks, W. A. Sample, Nathan Pierce, and W. W. Myers, and were re-elected March, 1892.

The causes: First the Chinese question which caused many to begin to see that capital only wished to use the laborer as a mere tool. The silver question and excessive freight charges. The good accomplished is the independent feeling in politics. Alliance people wear no party collars, don't to the party lash. Much is expected from a State agent who will be established soon.

Pennsylvania.

By Col. Henry C. DEMMING.

The first practical step taken in Pennsylvania on the subject of organizing a council of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union occurred on Saturday, the 5th of April, 1890, when the writer called on Col. Leonidas L. Polk, at the National office, Washington, D. C. and secured from Bro. Polk full

54

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information in regard to the objects and purposes of the organization, also a number of papers on the subject. At the time of the interview, President Polk stated that he would come to Pennsylvania as soon as we could have five or more counties represented at a farmers' meeting in Harrisburg the capital. After the writer returned to Harrisburg, he secured the necessary number to form an Alliance; and on Monday morning, the 14th of April, 1890, proceeded to Washington with a petition from five farmers and farmers' wives of Dauphin county, which was laid before the president of the National organization; whereupon the writer was duly initiated, and made organizer of the State of Pennsylvania, first having received full instructions in regard to the unwritten work.

The same evening the first Alliance was organized in Pennsylvania, and constituted in Grantville (now Penbrook), Susquehanna township, near Harrisburg, the officers being as follows: President, Henry C. Demming, Harrisburg; vice-president, John Brinton, Susquehanna township; chaplain, Mrs. Kate Brinton, Susquehanna township; lecturer, J. Schall Wilhelm, Paxtang; secretary, Mrs. Rebecca Hassler, Lower Swatara township; treasurer, John Good, Progress; steward, Samuel Sheesley, Progress; doorkeeper, George W. Houser, Susquehanna township; assistant door-keeper, John L. Biever, Susquehanna township.

On Saturday, April 26th, 1891, a public meeting was held in the Chestnut Street Market House Hall, Harrisburg, Hon. C. D. Eldred, of Lycoming county, acting as president; Israel Garretson, of Adams county, vice-president, and Rev. Wilfred M. Kellogg, of Lancaster county, secretary. The meeting was addressed by President L. L. Polk, after which every person present who was eligible joined the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union. Among the number was Col. James Young, the acknowledged leading farmer of Pennsylvania, and declared by many to have the model farm of the United States. The seed thus sown by President Polk and his companion, Major R. F. Gray, of Louisiana, was immediately spread into more than half a dozen counties, and the organization grew until, when the State Alliance was organized, November 26th, 1890 (just seven months afterward), there were members in twenty-six counties of the State.

The State organization was effected in the House of Representatives of the Capitol by the election of H. C. Demming, of Dauphin county, president; E. H. Werner, of Somerset county, secretary, with the usual other officers. The President declining to serve as such during the year, Henry C. Snavely of Lebanon county, was elected president; Curtis S. Clark, of Crawford county, vice-president; Henry C. Demming, secretary, and Valentine Hay, of Somerset county, treasurer; also, two delegates to the National Council at Ocala, Florida.

The Farmers' Alliance has steadily grown in Pennsylvania until, at the time of this writing (March 30, 1893), we have in the State over 500 alliances, with an average of about 50 members to each organization. The membership was very much augmented by the organization known as the Patrons of Toil joining the Farmers' Alliance in the fall and winter of 1890-91; followed by a similar union, in 1892-93, on the part of the Farmers' Alliance and Agricultural School.

Each succeeding year the State Council has grown larger and more influential as a body, the last meeting held in Williamsport on the 25th of October, 1892, being one of the best representative meetings of farmers of Pennsylvania ever held in the Commonwealth.

The work of the Alliance has gone steadily on until more than two-thirds of the counties of Pennsylvania have organizations, and nearly one-half of the counties of the State county Alliances. Thus far the growth has been most rapid and substantial in the central, northern, south-western and north-western parts of the State, with bright prospects of continued growth everywhere in the country districts until the organization shall become decidedly the strongest and most influential of any in Pennsylvania.

The agitation brought about by the organization has lead to a more general study of economic and other subjects whereby the agricultural classes may obtain speedy and permanent relief.

There is much more independence of thought and action in Pennsylvania than ever, and this has been brought about very largely through the promulgation of the tenets of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union. So rapid has been this growth of sentiment that one member of Congress (Hon. J. C.

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Sibley) in the north-western part of the State was elected November, 1892, by farmers and members of the industrial classes who have espoused the Farmers' Alliance principles.

Upon looking over the whole field there is no doubt that the organization has accomplished much good in the Keystone State, and that the principles enunciated by the order are being built upon a solid foundation.

The following are the officers of the State Alliance, as elected at the Williamsport meeting, October 26, 1892:

OFFICERS: — President, Henry C. Snavely, Lebanon, Pa.; Vice-President, W. A. Gardner, Andrews' Settlement, Potter County, Pa.; Secretary, Wm. P. Bricker, Cogan Station, Lycoming County, Pa.; Lecturer, T. St. Clair Thompson, Home, Indiana County, Pa.; Asst. Lecturer, Ezra Z. Greisemer, Greisemersville, Berks County, Pa.; Asst. Lecturer, A. E. Stockholm, Franklin Forks, Susquehanna County, Pa.; Treasurer, Jos. S. Horst, Lebanon, Pa.; Business Agent, E. D. Roche, Potter County. P. O. Address: Stone Dam, Allegany County, N. Y.

Executive Board: H¨ C¨ Snavely, Ex-officio Chairman, Lebanon, Pa.; G. W¨ Kilmer, Secretary Towanda, Bradford County, Pa.; J. L. Riley, Greenville.. Mercer County, Pa.; Wm. Wible, Gettysburg, Adams County, Pa.; W. A. Olmstead, Sanford, Warren County, Pa.; Henry Brobst, Rehrersburg, Berks County, Pa.; S. B. Kent, Waynesburg, Greene County, Pa.

Judiciary Board: D. P. Forney, Hanover, Pa.; Ed. Anderson, Big Bend, Venango County, Pa.; H. B. Schall, Rural Valley, Armstrong County, Pa.

In our business transactions we are doing better and better, and have much to encourage us in this direction.

The Keystone State sends her greetings to all her sister States, pledges full and hearty cooperation in the great movement for reform, and wishes all God speed in the right!

South Carolina.

(By J. W. REID.)

The Farmers' Alliance first made its appearance in South Carolina in the fall of 1887. Green Sea Aliance No. 1 was organized in October of that year by M. T. Seely of Texas, who was acting under a commission from the National Organizer. This Alliance is in the eastern part of the State. The Order rapidly spread through the eastern and northern part of the State until, at the organization of the State Alliance, July 11, 1888, there were 153 subordinate Alliances with a total membership of about three thousand. The State alliance was organized by L. L. Polk of Raleigh, North Carolina. The order spread rapidly throughout the State, and the second annual meeting of the State Alliance, held in July, 1889, there were 740 subordinate Alliances. At the organization of the State Alliance E. S. Stackhouse was elected President and J. W. Reid Secretary. They were re-elected at the second session held in 1889. At the third annual meeting, in 1890, J. Wm. Stokes was elected President and J. W. Reid Secretary. They were re-elected in 1891. The order grew during this time in numbers and the organization was carried into every county in the State.

Much good was accomplished in a financial way. The influence of the Alliance was felt in business transactions.

The fifth annual meeting of the State Alliance was held in Columbia on July 27 and 28, 1892. Delegates, representing 34 counties in the State, were present. The total number of subordinate alliances organized up to this time was 1076; the number of charters actually surrendered, 40; the number reported suspended or dissolved, 101; leaving 34 counties and 935 subordinate alliances in successful operation. M. L. Donaldson was elected President and J. W. Reid re-elected Secretary.

Early in the history of the alliance in this State the Cotton Plant, an agricultural paper, now published in Columbia and edited by J. W. Bowden, was made the official state organ.

At the second annual meeting of the Farmers' State Alliance the most important matter — the

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great absorbing question — that claimed the attention of the body at this session, was the establishment of the "Farmers Alliance Exchange of South Carolina, Limited," a corporate company with an allowed capital of $200,000. M. L. Donaldson, of Greenville, South Carolina, was elected State Business agent. On the 20th of November, 1889, the organization was completed, and the Exchange has been carried into active and successful operation under the able management of the State Business agent. The Exchange is handling everything that the farmer needs. It has made a marked impression on the prices of all articles. Every class of purchasers has and is enjoying the fruits of the Alliance Exchange victories. Its effective agency and its influence have been almost incalculable to the whole State. Some progress has been made in the way of co-operative stores. Five cooperative stores Union have been established, and are in successful operation in various sections of the State to fully test the plan, which warrants success in the experiment.

On the whole, the outlook for much good being accomplished by the order in South Carolina is very encouraging for the future. The people are reading and thinking and acting, which are the most hopeful signs of the success of the order. Much good has been done, and much more remains to be done. The order throughout the State is being sifted — adding to its numbers men who are loyal to the cause — without taint or tarnish. It is in fine spirit, and is more thoroughly united than ever before. All the State officers who are guiding the Alliance are true and faithful to the needs of the order.

West Virginia.

By H. Z. MARTIN.

The consciousness of legislative wrong has for several years created a very great spirit of unrest among the people of our little "Mountain State," as well as of larger and more wealthy States, and in common therewith they have felt that something must be done. The "Grange" or Patrons of Husbandry was the first organized effort in this direction. The Grange did a good work, and for a while the prospect of permanent relief was very encouraging; but the petitions through which the people hoped to reach the legislative councils were soon disregarded, and the chains of oppression riveted even closer than before.

The suffering among our people, because of our natural diversified resources, was less keenly felt than in many of our States; yet the conditions were rapidly growing worse, and something must be done. The most logical outcome, therefore, was to organize for education and concerted action. The farmers being the greatest sufferers, and their interests being almost entirely unrepresented in our legislative halls they determined to ally themselves together and demand relief, and hence the introduction of "The Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union" in West Virginia, it having been a short while at work in a few other States.

The first Alliance was organized in Pendleton County, West Virginia, by G. T. Barbee, of Virginia, and named "Locust Grove." Others were organized in Pendleton County and along the eastern border of the State, and in the spring of 1890 the work spread to the interior until August 13th of that year the number had reached to 252 local Alliances in 22 counties when the State Alliance was organized at Charleston, by Col. Barbee and National Secretary Turner.

The first State officers were: — President, S. A. Houston, Monroe Co.; vice-president, Jno. R. Thayer, Taylor Co.; secretary, H. Z. Martin, Summers Co.; treasurer, T. C. Parsons, Grant Co.; lecturer, R. M. Fisher, Morgan Co.; assistant lecturer, T. R. Carskadon, Mineral Co.; chaplain, A. J. McClung, Nicholas Co.; door keeper, A. Cunningham, Hardy Co.; assistant door keeper, James Coberly, Randolph Co.; sergeant-at-arms, W. C. Kiser, Pendleton Co.; business agent, Geo. H. Johnson, Hampshire Co.: statistician, E. B. Carr, Mercer Co.; with the standing committees.

The order took a rapid growth until at the next annual meeting held at Grafton, on August 12 and 13, 1891, when there were 609 Alliances with a membership of about 15,000.

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The same officers were generally re-elected, and R. M. Fisher and J. M. Sydenstricker were elected delegates to the "Supreme Council" at Indianapolis in November 1891, S. A. Houston and T. R. Carskadon, being the delegates to Ocala in 1890. The growth of the order was steady and business houses sprung up all over the State as a result of the co-operative spirit connected with it. Much good was accomplished, and the business features of the Order gave very material temporary relief from existing ills.

The third annual meeting of the State Alliance was at Clarksburgh on August 10 and 11, 1892. The same officers were re-elected at the head of the organization, with the exception of Lecturer S. H. Piersol being elected in place of B. J. Parks of the year before. At this meeting the number of organizations had run up to 775, with organizations in all the counties of the State except eight, which were controlled generally by the Knights of Labor and Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association.

During this year political influences made some breaches in the harmonious workings of the Order, the Democratic and Republican parties both seeking to disrupt it, or draw it into their ranks, though ignoring the principles and demands of the Order. The Alliance being non-political could not, only as individuals, act in regard to parties; but the educational features of the order having been so effectual, the members preferred to stand by principles rather than follow blindly party leaders, and in common with all who believed in independent action organized a People's Party in the State and placed in the field a full State ticket (except Attorney General); and in nearly all the Counties there have been conventions.

The People's Party platform being virtually the "demands" of the Alliance, and neither of the dominant parties having endorsed any of them, it is but natural that the members of the Alliance should be more in sympathy with that party, and it is also but natural to suppose that a large majority of them will so record their votes when called upon, so long as the conditions remain as they are.

The future of the order in West Virginia is not discouraging, although from causes stated its present growth is somewhat retarded. The principles of the Order have lost nothing, and the assurances are many that as soon as, the campaign pressure is removed the active business and social work of the Order will be resumed, and organization again pushed vigorously in the unorganized sections of the various counties. The next State Alliance will be held in Charlestown, Jefferson Co., the second Thursday in August, 1893.

Washington.

Written by T. H. BURNS.

The Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union was started in the State of Washington in Whitman Co. The first charter was issued Feb. 23, 1891, and we have had a very prosperous growth until now we have close on 200 locals.

Ahira Manring was commissioned on the 3rd day of January, 1891, to organize the State. He at once began to search out help in the work. J. M. Smith, of Garfield, Whitman Co., and T. H. Burns, of Cheney, Spokane Co., entered the field and vigorously pushed the work, and on the 28th day of October the State Alliance was organized at Colfax, with six counties organized. Ahira Manring, of Garfield, Whitman Co., was elected president; J. M. Smith, of Garfield, Whitman Co., vice-president; T. H. Burns, of Cheney, Spokane Co., secretary. Everything was successful. The Alliance grew rapidly. On the 10th day of May, 1892, the State Alliance held its first annual meeting and elected Ahira Manring president again, O. P. Hyet, of Whatcom Co., vice-president; Samuel E. Jones, of Bucoda, secretary. The Alliance has the respect of all in the State, and most all who are eligible to membership belong. The success is principally due to the untiring work of J. M. Smith and T. H. Burns, who entered the field under heavy opposition from the Open Alliance and established the F. A. & I. U. banner on the strong fortifications over every opposition.

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The Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association.

In the fall of 1883, five farmers living in the northeastern part of Johnson Co., Ill., each with a load of wheat to sell, met in Vienna, their county town. For some reason the buyers refused to purchase any wheat on that day, and these five farmers not feeling disposed to haul the wheat home again, telegraphed for the St. Louis market quotations which were entirely satisfactory. They succeeded in getting a car which was then on the side track, and loaded and shipped their own wheat. The returns were so much better than they had anticipated that they continued shipping their own wheat the rest of that season; and for convenience they would meet at the school-house in their own neighborhood to make necessary arrangements and settlements. The extra price they thus received for their wheat crop began to be noised about the adjoining neighborhoods, and very soon other communities were holding meetings for the same purpose. When five of these local meetings had been organized, a joint meeting was held at New Burnsides, a constitution and by-laws adopted, and a secret work formulated. This meeting was termed a General Assembly, and the name "Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association" was chosen for the organization. Under the provisions of the constitution adopted at New Burnsides, the General Assembly was to meet every three months. Each lodge was empowered to organize new lodges, but no provisions were made for individual organizers. In accordance with the Constitution, and under the form of the Ritual, it required a quorum of a regularly organized lodge to institute a new one; this method was continued until after the General Assembly, which met at at Mt. Vernon, Jefferson Co., Ill., July 4, 1887.

For the first two or three years the growth of the organization was very slow, it having extended during this time into the western part of Saline, Williamson, and the southern part of Franklin counties. The first General Assembly of this organization at which the members began to perceive the possibilities of the organization, was held in Benton, Franklin Co., Ill., the first week in April, 1887. At this meeting some six or seven counties were represented, and much of the ground work for the future up building of the organization was laid. A board of organizers and lecturers was chosen, and the work was carried into new fields.

On July 4, 1887, the General Assembly met in Mt. Vernon, Ill., and a committee was appointed to secure papers of incorporation; the constitution and laws of the organization were revised and a few individual organizers appointed. The succeeding meetings of the General Assembly, beginning in October, 1887, at Du Quoin, Ill., were held annually instead of quarterly. The General Assembly met at Murfreesboro in October 1888; Mt. Vernon, Ind., November, 1889; Springfield, Ill., November, 1890: Indianapolis, Ind., November, 1891, and Champaign, Ill., November, 1892.

The organization has, up to the present time, spread into Missouri, Iowa, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky, and perhaps has local organizations in a few other States. Up to the first of January, 1893, the qualifications for membership provided for the admission of only males over 21 years of age, but the qualifications are now so changed as to admit males over 18 years of age, and females over 21 years of age.

The Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association has, from its first inception, been distinctively a farmers' organization. Organized on a basis of co-operation, as has been nearly all similar organizations, it has made many mistakes and failures, which have resulted in the falling off of membership in such localities as had seen no necessity for an organization, except the possible financial savings through co-operative trading; but wherever the true spirit of American progress had been the moving impulse, the other advantages offered by the Order, through its educational and social features have held it together, and much good has been accomplished. Probably no other organization of this kind has ever been organized and grown to the proportions attained by the F. M. B. A., that has, through all its history, been so harmonious as has this order. At present, the officers of the General Assembly are: President, C. A. Robinson, of Indiana; secretary, W. E. Robinson, of Illinois; lecturer, John P. Stelle, of Illinois. The official organ of the organization is the Progressive Farmer, published at Mt. Vernon, Ill. It is barely possible that the extreme conservatism of this organization will eventually cause it to succeed and out-live other organizations of this kind that have attained a larger membership by pursuing more radical methods.

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Thresher Mfg. Co.

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History Knights of Labor.

(Compiled from "Thirty Years of Labor" by T. V. Powderly.)

Step by step the organization of labor unions can be traced, until the year 1859 found men of all callings looking about them for a relief from idleness and want. On the 3rd of March of that year the various unions of machinists and blacksmiths came together in the city of Philadelphia and organized the first national union of these trades, and on the 5th of July of the same year the iron moulders perfected a permanent organization.

In 1865, a small but determined band of men, met in the city of Louisville, Ky., to discuss the best manner of securing the attention of trade unions to matters of greater concern than they had heretofore considered. They adopted n6 platform, but united in a call to all organized bodies of workingmen to meet the following year in Baltimore, Md., for the purpose of perfecting an organization.

Sixty-four representative men met in Baltimore to attend the first convention. The discussion took a wide range, and embraced among other questions the "eight-hour" system, on which the following recommendation was offered: "That no workingman should vote for any aspirant to public office who failed to pledge himself to the eight-hour doctrine." This meeting adopted the name of "National Labor Union," and adjourned to meet in Chicago the following year.

It was found when the convention of the National Labor Union met in Chicago in 1867 that no progress had been made in the way of organizing subordinate labor unions, chiefly because the former contentions had made no arrangement for raising a revenue for this purpose. It was at this convention that the first reference was made to the establishment of a national labor bureau. The work between the adjournment of this convention and the holding of the next in the city of New York in August, 1868, was insignificant except in the way of agitation; that the results of organization among the labor classes was feared by the politicians was evident by the insulting and abusive utterances of the public press. It was about this time when corporations began the practice of "spotting" and "blacklisting" labor agitators.

Neither the ridicule of the press nor the blacklisting of members served to check the growth of the labor movement, and as a result of the agitation, Congress on June 25, 1868, passed the following law, which will be found in the Revised Statutes of the United States, Section 3738. "Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen and mechanics who may be employed by or in behalf of the government of the United States."

The next convention of the National Labor Union was held in Cincinnati in 1869, but was lightly attended and unimportant. The next convention was held in St. Louis in 1870, and was insignificant in point of numbers. The year 1872 saw the death of the National Labor Union.

The next step of importance in the field of organized labor was the meeting held in Cleveland, Ohio, July 15, 1873, in which were delegates from nearly all the different labor organizations, and a definite plan of action was agreed upon for the succeeding year. The convention adjourned to meet in Rochester, N. Y., April 14, 1874. The Rochester convention continued in session four days, adopted a preamble and platform demanding financial reform, and appointed organizers for thirty-one states. This organization was known as the Industrial Brotherhood; its next and last national convention was held in Indianapolis. Ind., in April, 1875.

Briefly these are the steps which led up to the organizing of the Knights of Labor; the progress was slow but steady, and a few persistent men made many sacrifices in behalf of principle.

The Knights of Labor was organized by Uriah S. Stephens, and a few of his associates, in the city of Philadelphia, Pa., one Sunday in the Spring of 1869, in Fairmount Park, and for several succeeding Sundays the meetings were held in the park. The name, "Knights of Labor," was adopted by the society on December 28, 1869. The plan of organization was to organize each trade into assemblies. The first organization, or Assembly No. 1, was composed of garment-cutters.

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Uriah S. Stephens, who planned and put into successful operation the organization, was chosen Master Workman, and is justly entitled to be called "The Father of the Knights of Labor."

The plans of the organization were developed step by step, a ritual adopted, and every precaution taken for preventing the world from gaining a knowledge of the organization, or who were members. The first district assembly was organized in December, 1873, by delegates from the five local assemblies then in existence. The first general assembly of the Knights of Labor was held in the city of Reading on January 1, 1878, in which meeting thirty-two district assemblies were represented, and one was without a delegate. A preamble and constitution was adopted, as was also a seal for the grand secretary; the seal adopted at this meeting has never been changed, the inscription around the edge, "That is the most perfect government in which an injury to one is the concern of all," was taken from the precepts of Solon, the Grecian sage and law-giver. Officers chosen at the first general assembly were, Grand Master Workman, Uriah S. Stephens; Grand Worthy Foreman, Ralph Beaumont; Grand Secretary, Charles H. Litchman.

The second general assembly was held in St. Louis, January 14, 1879. Of the twenty-six district assemblies then in existence, twenty-three were represented. The most important action taken at this session was to change the time of holding the general assembly from January to September. U. S. Stephens was reelected Grand Master Workman, as was also Grand Secretary Chas. H. Litchman; T. V. Powderly was elected Grand Worthy Foreman.

The third regular session convened in Chicago, Ill., on September 2, 1879. Grand Master Workman Stevens was prevented by broken health and fortune from attending. Four district associations had been organized since the St. Louis meeting. T. V. Powderly was elected Grand Master Workman, which position he has since held continuously, being reelected at each annual meeting.

The fourth regular session was held in Pittsburg, September 7, 1880. Forty-two district assemblies were represented. Twelve new district associations having been organized during the year. No change was made in officers.

The fifth regular session was held in Detroit, September 6, 1881. The most important action taken at this assembly was to declare the name of the order to be public property after January 1, 1882, and the decision that women could join the order on the same terms as men. Robert D. Layton was elected grand secretary.

The next regular session was held in New York, September 5, 1882, Eight new district associations had been organized and were represented. Ralph Beaumont was again elected as grand worthy foreman, the other officers were reelected.

The seventh regular session was held in Cincinnati, September 4, 1883. The number of new districts added during the year was fifteen. H. A. Coffin was elected grand worthy foreman, and Frederic Turner grand secretary. It was at this assembly that the word "Grand" as a part of the title of the officers was changed to "General."

The eighth regular session met in Philadelphia, September 1, 1884, with twelve new districts represented. The constitution underwent a radical change at this session, and for the first time since holding the first general assembly, changes were made in the preamble of principles of the order. It was at this session also that national trade associations were first recognized in the Knights of Labor. Richard Griffiths was elected general worthy foreman.

The ninth regular session was held in Hamilton, Ontario, October 5, 1885, with nineteen new districts represented, and a total membership of 104,335, was reported.

The rapid successions of strikes, boycots and lockouts, which followed the close of the Hamilton assembly necessitated the calling of a special session of that body. This special session met May 25, 1886, and remained in session nine days.

The tenth general assembly met at Richmond, October 4, 1886, with seventy-eight new districts represented; 658 delegates were seated in the convention, and a total membership of 702,924 was

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reported. The general executive board was increased from five to seven, and the term of office from one to two years. Action was taken at this session which took over $400,000 out of the treasury inside of one year, and Mrs. Leonora M. Barry was elected as general instructor of woman's work.

The eleventh session convened in Minneapolis, October 4, 1887, with forty-six new districts represented. A remarkable feature of this session was the attendance and address of Michael Davitt.

The twelfth session convened in Indianapolis, November 13, 1888, with thirty-two new districts represented. Morris L. Wheat was elected general worthy foreman, and John W. Hayes general secretary-treasurer.

The thirteenth general assembly convened in Atlanta, November 12, 1889. At this meeting fraternal delegates were received from the Farmer's Alliance, and arrangements were made to send Powderly, Beaumont and Wright, as fraternal delegates to the supreme council of the Farmer's Alliance, to be held in St. Louis in December of same year. New district assemblies were organized during the year at Glasgow, Scotland, and Lockport, N. Y., and a national grand assembly at Bay City, Mich.

The fourteenth general assembly was held in Denver, Colorado, beginning Nov. 13, 1890. The most important event of this convention was the adoption of the resolution authorizing the general master workman to issue a call to the other industrial organizations of the United States to send representatives to a conference to adopt a political platform. A committee consisting of the same number who had served in the same capacity the year previous was appointed to confer with the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, at their convention in Ocala, Fla., on Dec. 3, 1890. New district assemblies were organized during the year at Sheffield, England, Montreal, Canada, Quebec, Canada, and a territorial assembly in New Mexico.

The fifteenth general assembly was held in Toledo, Ohio, beginning Nov. 10, 1891. There were about 150 delegates present, representing a constituency of not less than 500,000 members. Nearly every State and Territory in the Union had its representative.

The sixteenth, and last, general assembly was held in St. Louis in November, 1892.

The full extent of good that has been done by the Knights of Labor will never be known. It is not within the bounds of human possibility to detail the many acts that have gone to benefit the millions. But the mission of the order is not yet complete. Having worked up a sentiment in favor of the measures advocated in its preamble, it still remains to put them into practical operation, and that duty rests with us to perform. The call has been sounded, the warning has been given; those who saw nothing of the danger which threatened us, now realize its full importance. The great work is still ahead of us. We must look to the future for what we have been contending for in the past.

The Northen, or Open Alliance.

It seems that the Northern Alliance, or Open Organization, started in the State of New York in 1847. The object, of this original organization seems to have been principally for the purpose of correcting some inequalities in the methods of assessing property, and to obtain equal representation for the agricultural classes in the Legislature of the State. The organization in New York was soon swallowed up by the Grange movement. Milton George, of Chicago, editor of the Western Rural, had been watching this attempt made by the farmers in New York, and on April 15, 1880, in the office of his paper, organized Cook County Alliance, No. 1. Mr. George was very enthusiastic on the subject of organization, and through the columns of the Western Rural the organization became widely known, and rapidly organized in the northwestern States. It has been continued as an Open Organization, without ritual or secret work. Its provisions for membership have admitted to the order such varied interests that the organization has never succeeded in accomplishing any very

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tangible results. Its membership in several of its strongest States have united with the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, and the Open Alliance at the present time, except, perhaps, in the State of Minnesota, consists of a few scattering lodges and individual members. This like most other organizations, was organized upon a co-operative basis, but gradually the educational features of the organization developed until education has become the principal object of the Order.

The declaration of purposes of the Open Alliance are very nearly like the principles of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union :

1. For the free and unlimited coinage of silver,
2. For the abolition of National Banks and the substitution of their notes by legal tender treasury notes, and the increase of the currency to $50.00 per capita.
3. Government ownership of railroads and telegraphs.
4. The prohibition of alien ownership of lands and of gambling in stocks, options and futures.
5. The adoption of a constitutional amendment requiring the election of President and Vice-president and United States Senators by direct vote of the people.
6. The Australian ballot system.

The Grange.

In the year 1865 one of the pioneer farmers of Minnesota found employment in the Agricultural department at Washington and was selected by President Johnson to go through the south, as a representative of the agricultural department, to visit its farmers and see what could be done to advance their interests. This man was P. H. Kelley and one of the results of his intercourse with the farmers of the south was a desire upon his part to form an organization among the farmers of the country, which should be above and beyond sectional and party lines. Returning to Washington he laid his plans before William Saunders who was at the head of the government experimental gardens and grounds. Mr. Saunders favored the plans of Mr. Kelley, and others in Washington becoming interested the "Grange" was born. Its seven founders were P. H. Kelley, William Saunders, J. E. Thompson, Rev A. Gresh, F. M. McDowell, J. M. Trimble and William M. Ireland, Miss Carrie A Hall should also be considered one of the founders of the Grange, as it was she who first suggested the admission of women into the organization, and that they should be entitled to the same rights and privileges as men.

At first the Grange grew but slowly and gave little promise of becoming an organization of National strength and importance. "Would be politicians" began to see in the Grange, great possibilities for gaining political favors and the organization took on a phenomenal growth.

In the one year of 1873 more than 1300 subordinate Granges were organized. Organizations sprang up as if by magic in almost every state and Territory. Wild schemes of co-operative business were entered into in many places. "Grange stores" were established in almost every town and hamlet. With the failure of these co-operative enterprises came the reaction and Granges died almost as rapidly as they had been organized. The organization shorn of its numerical strength made a persistent fight for continued existence and increased usefulness; the social and educational features were broadened, the few successful business enterprises were continued and together with those that failed enabled others to be established on a more intelligent and business like basis.

The Grange of to-day is one of the great moral forces of this government. Its educational features are receiving more attention than ever before. That ample provision is made for this may be seen by the following extract from the Declaration of Purposes — "In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity." "We propose meeting together, talking together, working together." — "We shall advance the cause of education among ourselves, and for our children, by all just means within our power." "Yet the principles we teach underlie all true politics, all true statesmanship, and if properly carried out, will tend to purify the whole political atmosphere of our country. For we seek the greatest good of all. "We cherish the belief that sectionalism is, and of right should be, dead and buried with the past. It is reserved by every pastor, as the right of a free man to affiliate with any party that will best carry out his principles.

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Industrial Organizations and Politics, Their True Relation.

By BEN TERRELL lecturer, N. F. A. & I. U.

The relation of organized labor to politics, is a question that is impossible for any one to discuss without differing with others whose opinions are entitled to fully as much consideration. This article, then, expresses my opinion as to the true relation of organized labor to politics. The first move made by labor organizations to enter the (heretofore) forbidden field of politics, was the grand union of Mechanics and Blacksmiths in 1860, when they asked that the eight hour law be brought before Congress. This was a small beginning, but it seems to have been the first drop of the mighty tide of thought that was to break down all barriers, until to-day, every industrial organization is more or less engaged in the discussion of politics, for the education of its members in their political duties, without any reference to parties. A convention of organized labor was called by W. H. Sylvas and others, to meet in Philadelphia on the 22nd day of February, 1861, and the following resolution was adopted: "The business of this committee is to perfect, and to perpetuate an organization among the Industrial classes of this city and State, for the purpose of placing in positions of public trust men of known honesty and ability; men who know the real wants of the people; men who have not made politics a trade; men, who, for a consideration, will not become the mere tools of corporations and aristocratic monopolies; men who will devote their time and energies to the making of good laws, and direct their administration in such a way as will best sub serve the interests of the whole people." This will express the purpose of political discussions in the Industrial orders at the present time; this, I believe, can be shown to be true by referring to their declarations of purpose, and position taken by prominent men in their rank. Their effort is rather to destroy than to build up partisanship; their object seems to be too endeavor to secure better laws and purer politics; to encourage independent thought and action in politics; to free the people from that hideous monster, partisanship, that has for the last thirty years appealed to the prejudices and passions of men, instead of their reason, and has kept the people divided on sectional lines, to destroy that ignorance that would cause industrial classes engaged in different avocations, to imagine that their political interests were not the same, and blinding the industrial classes to their true interests. To educate until laboring men stand the peers of other classes in their knowledge of government, and its effects upon their interests: To arouse patriotism, and induce their members to take part in shaping the politics of the government; to produce a grander, better manhood, into whose hands the destinies of our people can be safely trusted. Such are the results hoped to be attained, and the aim is worthy the God speed of all who love their country.

To show that the above is recognized as the true relation of Organized Labor to Politics, I here present the Declaration of Purpose as promulgated by the National Alliance, and Co-operative Union at its first meeting after its organization in Shrevesport, La., in October, 1887. Under the head of Political I find the following: "Without disturbing political party lines, or party affiliations, or provoking partisan feeling or strife, we shall boldly enter the discussion and investigation of all laws, public measures, and government policies, that have a direct or remote bearing on the productive industries of the country, and its material welfare generally. Approving the good and condemning the bad, offering, through the ballot and other means within our reach, such remedies for existing evils and threatening dangers, as we believe the public interest demands. We shall teach unfaltering hostility to all class legislation; the tyranny and oppression of monopolies, excessive taxation, the lavish expenditure of public moneys, and to every species of wrong and abuse practical in government affairs; and shall expose, and denounce fraud, and corruption in public official places wherever discovered; no matter from what source they may come, etc." Again, from address of Evan Jones, President of the Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union at St. Louis, December, 1889, under the head of Politics, he says: "While our order, as an order, is strictly non-partisan

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in politics, yet, section one, in our Declaration of Purposes says that we shall labor for the education of the Agricultural classes in the science of economic government, in a strictly non-partisan spirit, and then goes on to urge the importance of such education; this declaration was not changed at that meeting. W. S. Morgan, author of the "History of the Wheel, and Alliance, and Impending Revolution," says, on page 205, "were we asked to define the objects of the order in as few words as possible, we would answer, it is a school of education." Again, on page 207, same author I quote, "It is proper to state in this connection that they do not seek to overthrow any particular political party and institute a new one, but it must not be supposed that their allegiance to party is stronger than the ties which bind them to their interests." Again, same author, page 283, "If the truth will overthrow some of our cherished theories, or antagonise our party, let it come. Let every man study political economy, teach it to his children, expound it to his neighbor, and proclaim it to the world." I quote from the Tennessee State Wheel to show the position of that order before uniting with the Alliance. "The Wheel is determined to keep out of corrupt politics, and determined to keep politics out of it. We are not organized in opposition to any party, nor do we express antipathy to any political organization, but we are organized against class legislation, hostile to the Agricultural interests of the country." W. W. Tedford, one of the founders of the Wheel says: "It looked hopeful to the time when it would be powerful enough to control legislation, not from a partisan standpoint, nor as a political party; but as an independent factor, too honest to be cajoled or bought off, and too powerful to be crushed." You will find the Knights of Labor, F. M. B. A., Grange, Federation of Labor, and all other Industrial organizations whose declaration of purpose I have been able to consult, hold in substance about the same position as the Wheel and Alliance, where they have made any political declaration at all.

Much has been accomplished by this political education, and, if continued, its final result will be a government by the people and for the people. Already the false theory "that the political interests of all industrial classes are not the same," is tottering to its fall. As education progresses, they are being drawn closer and closer together in their political ideas and opinions; already the advanced thinkers of town and country have clasped hands, and are standing side by side, demanding the same reforms in government. At the meeting in December, 1889, at St. Louis, this political education began to bear fruit. At that meeting the fraternal delegates from the K. of L., indorsed the political demands of the F. A. & I. U., and conference were had between the National Alliance, of the North West, and the F. A. & I. IT. and some progress was made toward a union of the two orders, and the death blow to sectionalism was struck. At the next meeting of the F. A. & I. U., in 1890, at Ocala, Fla., action was taken that resulted in the famous conference of Industrial organizations held at St. Louis on the 22nd of February, 1892, and as some claim that by the action taken, the Alliance became partisan. It will be well to here insert that part of the report of C. W. Macune, made as Ex-officio Chairman of the Legislative Committee, upon which the action was had. I quote, "I call your attention to the great responsibility resting upon this body at this time, as to that action it takes in regard to the political situation. The order could never participate in any partisan political effort, and in the South it was opposed to giving its sanction to any independent or third party move on the part of the members, while in the West, and North West, the delegates claim that the order will retrograde if such action is not given." In this emergency he thought he had a compromise to offer that would meet the case exactly, and that was for this body to say, that it hereby gives its sanction, and call for a meeting to be held about February, 1892, to be composed of delegates from all organizations of producers, upon a fair basis of representation, for the purpose of a general and a thorough conference upon the demands of each, and to the end that all may agree upon a joint set of demands, just prior to the next national campaign; and agree upon the proper methods of enforcing such demands. If the people, by delegates direct from them, agree that a third party move is necessary, it need not be feared; and that the next session of this Supreme Council elect delegates from this order to represent it in said National Conference of Producing Organizations for political purposes." On motion of Livingston, of Georgia, the report was adopted,

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and the committee on Confederation was instructed to act for the F. A. & I. U. The committee held an informal meeting at Ocala, and issued a call for a meeting of the committee at Washington, D.C., in January, 1891. An invitation was extended to all Industrial organizations to send delegates. The K. of L., and the colored Alliance did so, and met with the committee of the F. A. & I. U., and proceeded to organize the Confederation of Industrial Organizations, with Ben Terrell, of the F. A. & I. U., president, and G. W. Hayes, K. of L., secretary. A call was issued for the February meeting, and all Industrial organizations invited to attend; the original call named Washington, D. C. as the place, and the 22nd of February as the time; afterwards changed to St. Louis, Mo. The attendance was beyond the most sanguine hope of those having the matter in charge. The programme agreed upon at Ocala was carried out faithfully up to the meeting of the delegates at St. Louis, where it was found that some States had instructed against any party action by their delegates, and it was found necessary, for the sake of harmony, to arrange a compromise. All delegates agreed to participate in the meeting to agree upon demands; after which the conference was to be adjourned and a mass meeting called immediately, for the purpose of devising methods for enforcing said demands, and considering independent political action. It was understood that the conference of delegated representatives ended with the adoption of the demands agreed upon, and that those who took part in the mass meeting did so as citizens, and that the action taken did not, in any sense, connect the orders taking part in the conference, with any action taken by the mass meeting. According to that agreement, after the adoption of the demands, the confederation was immediately adjourned, and C. W. Macune moved to call G. B. Weaver to the chair, which was carried. Then a resolution that the chair appoint a committee of fifteen to confer with the People's Party, and take such action as seemed to them best; to enforce the demands agreed upon by the conference; was moved and adopted as a consequence of the action taken by the committee. A call for the convention that met at Omaha, was sent out. The result has become history, and the vote polled was unprecedented for a new party.

I have digressed for the purpose of explaining the February conference, because its relations to the Industrial orders has been, by some good men misunderstood, and by others purposely mis-stated. That a continuance of political education by the industrial orders will result in the adoption of their demands by one of the great parties, or the uniting of all who favor them in an Independent party, seems certain; but this is a result of political education, and does not in any sense necessitate any of these orders becoming partisan. If education and enlightenment result in the death of any party, it is good evidence that it should die. Neither the death nor the life of any party should concern those wanting reform. The political education of the Industrial organizations must be to build up a grander, nobler, purer, and more intelligent citizenship; and if they are wise enough to prevent demagogues and office seekers from introducing partisan methods of proscribing all who may differ with them, and thereby destroying that freedom of thought and independence of action, that must be assured to all, if the education of the masses be accomplished. If they continue this grand education, then the day is not far distant when the politics of the government will be controlled by the independent classes. The great danger is that party agitation will take the place of political education; this must be prevented, if possible, and the orders kept out of partisanship, and continue their education.

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Manual of Parliamentary Usage,

Especially prepared for use in
FARMERS ALLIANCES.

Table designed to show the power and precedence of any motion at a glance. For full explanation see references.

FIRST CLASS OF MOTIONS. — To fix time to which to adjourn, 4. To adjourn 5. Questions of privilege, 6. Orders of the day, 7.

SECOND CLASS OF MOTIONS. — Appeal (questions of order), 8. Objection to considering a question, 9. Reading of papers, 10. Withdrawal of a motion, 11. Suspension of the rules, 12.

THIRD CLASS OF MOTIONS. — To lay on the table, 13. The previous question, 14. To postpone to a certain day, 15. To commit, 16. To amend, 17, To postpone indefinitely, 18.

FOURTH CLASS OF MOTIONS. — Principal motion, 19.

MISCELLANEOUS MOTIONS. — To reconsider, 20. Filling blanks, 21. Renewing motion, 22.

(The numbers designate the rule governing the motion.)

These motions have power and take precedence generally in the order in which they are plated in the above list, except the miscellaneous class, which vary in power according to circumstances A motion of the fourth class when properly before the house does not prevent the introduction of any of those above it in the list, but it does prevent the introduction of another motion of equal power to itself, and so on with each of the different motions and classes. Usually when a motion is made its position in the above list indicates that no motion below it is in order, and any motion above it may be in order. The three motions given above as the miscellaneous class are not strictly a separate class, since they always, when introduced, belong to one of the first four classes named; e. g., a move to renew a motion, if applied to a motion to adjourn, becomes a motion of the first class, or a motion to fill blanks, if applied to a motion to read papers, becomes a motion of the second class.

Motions of the fourth class are plain, simple motions of any kind, and are here called simple motions; they do not take precedence over anything but like motions of the same class, hence the old rule that "a motion is not in order when another motion is pending;" it, however, applies to principal motions only.

Motions of the third class are motions which modify or affect action upon a motion already before the house. They are usually called subsidiary motions. They must always be disposed of before the question they are introduced to affect.

Motions of the second class are motions which are incidental to the business in hand, and which should be disposed of before the pending question receives further consideration. Motions of this class are called incidental motions, and are in order when a question of the third or fourth class is before the house.

Motions of the first class are motions affecting the meeting or its members, and of such general or necessary scope as to be allowed precedence over either of the other classes of motions. They are called privileged motions, and are always in order when properly introduced.

Parliamentary Rules.

1. A motion is not properly introduced unless the person making it has first risen to his feet, addressed the president by saying, "Mr. President," and been recognized by the president as having the floor.

2. If a motion has been before the house and lost, the same motion cannot again be entertained at the same meeting unless it be a privileged question, and not then unless other business has intervened.

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3. No person has a right to speak more than once to a question, except he who introduced the motion, until all have spoken. The mover of a question has a right to open and close the debate. A person desiring to speak more than once to a question should ask permission of the chair, who will generally say. "If there is no objection offered by the house the brother will be allowed to speak again." If no one objects the brother is allowed the floor, but if objection is made the president will take the vote of the house (without motion) and announce the result as a majority may decide.

4. A motion "To fix the time to which to Adjourn" is not a motion to adjourn. It is generally expressed thus: "I move that when the body adjourns it adjourns to meet on the — day of — ,
18 — , at — ." If the motion is introduced when another motion is before the house, it is a motion of the first class, "a privileged motion," and is not debatable. It may, however, be amended as to time only. It is in order after a vote to adjourn has been taken, provided the result has not been announced by the president. If this motion be introduced when there is no other motion before the house it looses its power as a privileged motion and becomes simply a principal motion, with only such force as attaches itself to motions of the fourth class.

5. A motion "To Adjourn," if unqualified, belongs to the first class or privileged motions. It can not be amended or debated. A motion "That this body proceed to close in due form" is an unqualified motion to adjourn, and is the best manner of moving adjournment in a secret society having closing exercises. When a motion to adjourn is modified, as to adjourn to a certain time or place, it is not a privileged motion, but a principal motion, and belongs to the fourth class, and is subject to all the laws governing the fourth class.

6. "Questions of Privilege" should not be confounded with privileged questions. A question of privilege may be general, i. e., relating to the welfare or comfort of the whole body, or special, relating to the welfare, comfort or rights of the individual. In either case it is a motion of the first class.

7. "Orders of the day" are general and special, and belong to the first class. To make any business a "special order" requires a two-thirds vote and gives it the preference over general orders. Special orders can not be taken up before the time specified, except by a two-thirds vote. Orders of the day may be postponed by a majority vote. The call for order of the day does not require a second, and cannot be debated or amended, neither can any of the third class motions be entertained pending call for order of the day.

8. Appeal. — Is a second class or "incidental" motion. An appeal from the ruling of the president on a point of order is not debatable, but if the ruling is on a question of law it may be debatable. It cannot be amended. It must be seconded. A motion to lay it on the table or a motion to reconsider may be entertained, and a motion for the previous question applies if the appeal is debatable. If a motion to table an appeal prevails it does not affect the ruling from which an appeal was taken; the appeal only is disposed of.

9. Objection to Considering a Question. — Second class. Does not require a second; can not be debated or amended; can not have any third class motion applied to it. Must be made when the question is first introduced or before it is debated, and requires a two thirds vote. To make this motion a member gets the floor in the proper manner and says: "Mr. President, I object to the consideration of this question." The President then immediately, and without any second, puts the question to the house. "Shall the question be entertained?" If decided in the negative the whole matter is dismissed for the entire session. The object of this motion is to keep out such questions as may be unwise or improper.

10. Motion "To Read Papers." — Second class. Can not be debated or amended. Any member has a right to have papers read before he votes, and the president should have papers read on the call of one person unless objection is made. When, however, some one objects, the vote of the house should be taken without debate.

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11. Withdrawal of Motion. — Second class. A motion once properly made is the property of the house, and can only be withdrawn by the mover when there is no objection, but should there be an objection offered to withdrawal, then a motion to withdraw, duly seconded, is necessary, and can not be debated or amended.

12. Suspension of the Rules. — Second class. Requires a two thirds vote. Can not be reconsidered or have any third class motion applied to it. Is not debatable. Can not be repeated for same purpose.

13. To Lay on the Table. — Third class. Can not be debated or amended. If carried in the affirmative can not be reconsidered. Does not admit of any other third class motion. Removes the subject only till taken from the table. A motion to table an amendment or a substitute carries with it the main question and everything appertaining to it; all goes to the table together. This however, does not apply to cases of appeal, or to reconsider or amend the minutes. The object of a motion to table is to postpone action on the subject in such a manner that it can be taken up at any time, which is done by making a motion to take the question from the table. This requires a second, and is not debatable. A motion to lay on the table may be entertained even after the previous question has been ordered up to the time of taking the last vote on the main question.

14. The Previous Question. — Third class. Can not be amended or debated. Does not admit of any third class motion except to lay on the table. Applies to questions of privilege and to all debatable questions. Must be seconded. Requires a two-thirds vote to carry. May be confined to an amendment. Members may offer resolution and move previous question at same time. Much confusion of understanding sometimes exist as to this motion. It does not apply to any motion previously introduced, as its name would seem to imply, but is called previous question because it requires the question or vote to take precedence over the debate. It applies to the question before the house, whether it be main question, amendment, or substitute, and is practically a motion to stop the debate and to call for the vote. If a question and amendment are pending when a motion for the previous question is carried the President at once proceeds to take the vote, first on the amendment to the amendment, second on the amendment as amended, and then, third, on the main question as amended or not, as the case may be. All this is implied by the previous question unless the mover limits it to the amendment, which he has a right to do, and which exhausts the previous question when the vote is taken on the amendment, and leaves the main question open for debate the same as when originally introduced. The previous question is also exhausted on a motion to reconsider; and, therefore, does not shut off debate on the main question after the motion to reconsider has prevailed. It is not exhausted on a motion to commit, which, therefore, when decided in the negative, requires the vote on the main question without debate. It is exhausted on a motion to postpone, and the main question is debatable when the motion to postpone is lost. It is also exhausted on a question of privilege. Bear in mind that regardless of the name of this motion its object is simply to stop the debate and bring the house to a vote; it may, therefore, be made when only one motion without any amendments or modifications is before the house; in fact, a member may introduce a motion that he does not want debated by moving the previous question at the same time he introduces the resolution.

15. To Postpone to a Certain Time — Third Class. Can not be taken up before that time except by a two-thirds vote. Previous question is exhausted on this motion and does not affect the main question. Different questions postponed to different times and not reached on time should be considered in the order in which they were postponed. This motion only admits of debate on the merits of postponement.

16. To Commit — Third class. Can be amended. Is debatable and opens main questions to debate. The usual form for this motion is: "I move to refer the subject to — ."

17. To Amend. Third class. An amendment can be amended, but an amendment to an amendment can not be amended; no further modification of the subject can be allowed without a vote.

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A substitute, however, may be offered for the whole business. Amendments should be in writing if requested by the President. When the President takes a vote on a question to which an amendment and an amendment to the amendment has been offered he will take the vote on the last amendment first and announce the result. He will then take a vote on the first amendment and announce the result. He will then take the vote on the main question.

18. To Postpone Indefinitely. — Third class. Cannot be amended. Is debatable and opens main questions to debate. The previous question is exhausted on this motion, and does not, therefore, shut off debate when indefinite postponement is lost. When this question prevails it removes the question for the entire session.

19. Principal Motion. — Fourth class. It does not take precedence of anything but another principal motion, and therefore, it yields to everything except another principal motion, and can not be made when any other question is before the house. It should be in writing when requested by the President.

20. To Reconsider. — Is one of the miscellaneous motions, and may belong to either the first second, third, or fourth class of motions, according to circumstances. It can not be reconsidered. It may be introduced when another question is before the house, but can not be acted on till the question is disposed of. No question can be twice reconsidered. A motion to adjourn, or suspend the rules, or an affirmative vote to lay on the table, or take from the table, can not be reconsidered. It may be laid on the table. The previous question partly executed, or any vote which has caused action that can not be reversed, can not be reconsidered. It must be made on same day that the motion to be reconsidered was passed, and must be offered by one who voted on the prevailing side. It is always in order till the vote on adjournment has been announced by the Chair; must be seconded, and only requires a majority vote. When it is made while other business is pending that would make action or consideration of the question to reconsider out of order, the person introducing it should introduce the motion to "reconsider and spread upon the minutes." This arrests all force or action in pursuance of the motion sought to be reconsidered until such time as the motion to reconsider is called up and disposed of. By courtesy no one calls up the motion to reconsider except the one making or seconding same. This motion is debatable if question to be reconsidered is debatable, and then it opens main question to debate. A motion to reconsider a vote on a third class motion takes precedence of a fourth class motion pending, and yields to first and second class motions, except orders of the day. Previous question is exhausted on a motion to reconsider. Amended motions must be reconsidered before the amendment can be. If a motion to reconsider is adopted it places the original question in the same position it was before it was passed. If a question requiring a two-thirds vote to adopt be voted on and lost, a motion to reconsider would have to come from one who voted in the negative, because that was the prevailing side. If a motion to reconsider a question prevails, a member who exhausted his privilege of debate during the first consideration of the question is not again entitled to the floor, but he has a right to the floor to discuss the question on its merits while the motion to reconsider is pending, and this rule is often utilized by members who have exhausted their privilege of debate on the question, and enables them to get in another speech.

21. A Motion to Fill Blanks. A miscellaneous motion, but generally of the third class. The largest sum and longest time should first be put to vote.

22. Renewing a Motion. A miscellaneous motion, and frequently of the first class. It sometimes happens that a member will through courtesy yield the floor to another having something urgent to offer, and as soon as that business is disposed of the first will claim the floor for the purpose of renewing his motion.

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ACME Havester Co.

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Altman